Adhesives: Ingredients and FAQ

Much in use, but little attention - This existence generally eradicates adhesives. In fact, they are involved in almost all things of daily life and perform elementary tasks that would otherwise be impossible or very much worse and more expensive to achieve by other means.

Glue: From all-purpose glue to special products

Adhesives: Ingredients and FAQ: ingredients

And the world of different adhesives is extremely diverse, because a "all-purpose adhesive" covers a wide range of applications, but does not really stick to everything.

So did the manufacturers of these products through intensive research and development always brought new varieties on the market, in order to solve more and more specialized tasks or even more applications with other fastening technology and adhesive technology. In addition, it has been observed that water-based adhesives are growing well.

The global adhesives and sealants market is 12.5 billion euros; After all, Germany holds 10% of the total volume and the statistical per capita consumption in the western industrialized countries is around 6 kg per year. Many products would probably not exist without glue, such as: As chipboard, plywood, corrugated board, composite films, etc.

Advantages of gluing

  • Clean application without noise pollution;
  • No material weakening due to drilling;
  • No further tools are needed;
  • Repair instead of throwing away helps to obtain values;
  • Combines different materials permanently and safely;
  • Allows the transmission of high forces in large glued areas;
  • No heat damage by soldering or welding;
  • Prevents fluid build-up between parts, thus preventing corrosion;
  • Elastic adhesives dampen z. B. drone effects;
  • Partly the only way to connect materials together.

Stick correctly

What is glue?

Adhesive is a non-metallic material, The body can connect by surface adhesion (adhesion) and internal strength (cohesion), without the structure and the body change significantly (DIN standard 16920).

Thus, the bond is a firm connection of two parts, produced by an adhesive layer that dries or hardens by chemical reaction and thus holds the materials together.

Adhesive Good adhesion

If the word "glue" is used, that is not as clear as you think. Because under this term z. As adhesives, pastes, glues, Klebkitte, cements, vegetable gum, adhesive pastes, etc. summarized. Of course, there is also a fixed definition, namely in the DIN standard 16920. To achieve a good bond, the surfaces should be free of grease and dust. On the individual containers additional measures, but also restrictions are given which materials, e.g. not be glued to the product or suffer damage. Basically, the following steps are recommended:

  • The surfaces must be freed from all foreign substances and should then z. B. roughened by grinding.
  • The surfaces to be bonded must be cleaned with acetone, nitro thinner (Attention: if necessary, attack the surfaces) or alcohol (ethanol). Do not use petrol-based solvents (leave traces of oil).
  • The dry ones Do not touch the adhesive surfaces anymore (Skin greases), apply the adhesive thinly and evenly (cohesion effect) and under certain circumstances flash off.
  • A Contamination of the adhesive surface should be avoided.

After the connection, the curing follows, that of the two relevant factors of time and temperature Thus, the curing time can be influenced by a change in temperature; Heating reduces the curing time, cooling it lengthens it. The time to complete cure is called cure time or polymerization time.

bonding process

In addition to the various adhesives, there are still many gluing methods. The following methods can be distinguished:

  • Wet adhesion. Here, the adhesive is applied on one side. It is important that one of the parts to be bonded be absorbent and adhesive must be applied over the entire surface. The parts are then wet and insert appropriately fitting. Advantages: Bonding of small parts directly from the tube possible; Large surface application with toothed spatula or short-bristled brush; Parts can be readjusted; no waiting times have to be observed as with contact adhesives.
  • Contact Glue, The adhesive must be applied to both adhesive parts and then flash for approx. 5 to 15 minutes - depending on the surface condition - until dry to the touch. Only then must both parts be pressed together briefly and firmly. Advantages: Bonding of non-permeable materials possible; the splice remains flexible; a good instant adhesion. u Melting. The adhesive is heated and liquefied here - predominantly - with a hot-melt adhesive gun up to 220° C (depending on the design). The parts should then be fixed immediately, as this adhesive cools and hardens relatively quickly. Advantages: suitable for Styropor® and other heat-sensitive materials; low odor development (mostly solvent-free); rapid fixation by cooling; Technology is usually very simple; ideal for hobbyists and home improvement.
  • reaction bonding, These adhesives, which at first consist of liquid, low molecular weight compounds, are converted by a chemical reaction into high molecular weight polymers and so high strength. They are marketed as one-component (reacting, for example, due to temperatures or environmental factors such as humidity or oxygen) or two-component adhesives (two substances being mixed in a certain ratio). Superglue belongs to the one-component reaction adhesives. Advantages: no volume shrinkage; a combination of non-permeable materials is possible.
  • adhesive bonding, An area that is rarely used in the home and in very specific applications. For example, self-adhesive sticky notes, car stickers, adhesive tapes, adhesive labels, etc. are provided with a pressure-sensitive adhesive.

Adhesive ingredients

There are adhesives the most diverse ingredients, which, of course, very much influence the areas of application. So are adhesive z. B. due to their binders, which may be natural (natural resins, carbohydrates, rubber, proteins, waxes and other natural products) or synthetic (artificially produced such as various acrylates, acetates, resins, etc.) or whether they are solvent-containing or solvent-free.

solvent-based adhesives

Solvents such as alcohol, acetone or gasoline have the function of liquefying the rubbers or resins in the adhesives. The solvent must either be able to escape through the material to be bonded (permeable materials are wood, cardboard, leather, etc.) or can thaw laterally in denser materials. The evaporation causes the curing of the adhesive. Adhesives with solvents have (still) a better initial adhesion, are in the use of diverse and bonding materials better. Unfortunately, they have the negative effect that the evaporation causes a more or less intense odor nuisance.

solvent-free adhesives

Exactly these odor Do not have solvent-free adhesives, because the substances are liquefied in the adhesive with water. The bond strength of porous, permeable materials is similar to that of solvent-based adhesives.

The disadvantage is a slower drying of the substance and at z. B. Paper a slight curl (moisture). Also, not all applications can be made with these adhesives.

Adhesive selection criteria

To be able to find and use the right glue should answered in advance certain questions can be. If a wrong adhesive is used, on the one hand, the safety aspect is considerably reduced and, on the other hand, materials could be damaged and thus damaged. The following questions "force" to clear definitions and are therefore indispensable for the selection of suitable and to use adhesive.

  • Which materials should be glued?
  • How big is the surface to be bonded?
  • What is the surface like?
  • Can the surface be treated mechanically or chemically?
  • Is the existing accuracy of fit sufficient?
  • How is the bonding claimed?
    (Type of load, resistance to aging, heat, solvents, weathering, strength and elasticity)
  • Curing time short or long possible?

If you have got the answers to these questions, the suppliers of the adhesive usually provide sufficient information to help the home improvement buy the right glue and his "adhesive technology" project can succeed.

Adhesive FAQ

Why is not the glue already stuck in the tube?

Once pressed out of the bottle glue sticks almost everything and bombproof. He keeps our modern world together - from the car to the smartphone. Only in the tube, because he does not stick. Why is that? Adhesives - invisible to the eye - consist of tiny, sticky particles. These are brought into a liquid form by means of solvents, for example water. As soon as the adhesive is pushed out of the tube and comes into contact with air, the water evaporates from the mass, the adhesive hardens and begins to stick. A however, a sealed tube or bottle is airtight and keeps the glue fluid.

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