Guide to the construction of an energy-efficient house

A highly energy-efficient construction is also financially worthwhile today. The same in two respects: on the one hand, high subsidy sums can already be used during construction, on the other hand, energy costs remain very low in the long term. But what you have to look out for when building an energy-efficient house, which types of construction exist, which criteria are decisive and how to proceed step by step in the planning, is revealed in the following article.

Definition energy-efficient house

For new buildings, the regulations from the German Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) and the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWärmeG) apply today. Compared to earlier construction methods, every modern-day new building is already an energy-efficient house.

The standard measure for energy-efficient houses is the KfW Efficiency House 100. In this fictional show house, all applicable regulations are optimally implemented. The standard measure is also used as a basis for calculating KfW subsidies.

The planning of your own building can be based on Efficiency House 100 or even increase the required energy efficiency. According to KfW standards, this is 70%, 55% or 40% of the energy consumption of an efficiency house 100.

Special, highly efficient construction methods

  • passive house
  • Zero-energy house
  • Plusenergiehaus
  • hybrid house

passive house

A passive house is due to its construction without a conventional heating system. This is done by radical reduction of heat losses and comprehensive heat recovery.

75% of the heat contained in the used air is returned to the room air, which are usually soil heat exchangers. Passive houses mean a higher capital expenditure and are promoted as high as an efficiency house 40.

The savings in heating and hot water production are also noticeable through a cheaper electricity bill. In a passive house, significantly less electricity is consumed.

Zero-energy house

The zero energy house is an extension of the passive house. Ideally, there are no longer any need for grid connections for electricity and gas. The zero energy house is so energetically self-sufficient.


A plus energy house generates an energy surplus. Plus-energy houses currently have a status of model projects and are funded by the BMVBS with up to € 70,000. In addition, a special subsidy of up to € 300 per square meter is available.

The experiences are made accessible to research.

hybrid house

Hybrid homes are all those buildings that use at least two renewable energy technologies. The energy efficiency of a hybrid house can be in the range of the KfW efficiency houses, but also in the range of passive, zero energy or plus energy house.

Build energy efficient house - the most important steps

1st information phase

At the beginning of the planning, specify the desired type of house (measure of energy efficiency). Here also the available funding in connection with the possible financing capital play a role.

2nd planning phase

The technologies needed to achieve the desired energy efficiency must be planned and coordinated accordingly. The expected future operating costs can also be determined. After the structural planning, the cost and financing planning takes place taking into account the available funding.

3rd construction phase

During the construction phase, the construction measures must be comprehensively documented. Compliance with the planned performance and efficiency values ​​of components and systems is checked during the construction phase.

4. Final evaluation

After completion of the construction, the performance, efficiency and heat transfer values ​​of the building are checked and documented once more.

Tips & Tricks

It may be worthwhile to carry out a strict cost-benefit calculation in advance. For example, a passive house often has a better cost-benefit factor than a zero energy house in some cases.

Video Board: How to design an energy efficient home