Bituminous sealing compounds - sealing with bitumen

Bituminous sealing compounds - sealing with bitumen: compounds

Bitumen-based waterproofing have proven themselves for centuries. Bitumen (from Latin: earth pitch) is derived from petroleum, is black, sticky to hard with a temperature-dependent elasticity (due to warming it becomes softer and more fluid) and of great chemical resistance.

Due to their insolubility in water bitumen sealants, to protect buildings against water and seal components. In addition to bituminous coatings (eg exterior waterproofing with bitumen thick coating), bitumen membranes are used to seal flat roofs.

The disadvantage is sometimes insufficient strength and brittleness of bitumen after solidification. To overcome these disadvantages, rubber components and fibers are added. This achieves an elastification and an improvement of the embrittlement tendency of the bitumen. In order to increase the tensile and shear strength and to protect the bitumen layer from mechanical damage, geotextiles can be incorporated.

Cold bitumen - hot bitumen

It will distinguished between cold bitumen and hot bitumen. Cold bitumen is processed using special additives in a processible liquid material and is therefore suitable for home improvement. Hot bitumen, however, must be brought to a high temperature (140 degrees Celsius) to z. B. bitumen roofing membranes and is therefore suitable as a material only for craftsmen.

Protection against weather

Bitumen coatings are open to the elements, so a roof with bituminous membranes should be a bit sloping, so that rainwater can drain. In addition, to protect against oxidation (makes the material cracked and brittle) plastics should be mixed or surface protection systems applied.

Seal with bitumen structures

Bituminous sealing compounds - sealing with bitumen: bituminous

Effect and durability The waterproofing with bituminous thick coatings depends on the observance of three basic rules: preparation of the substrate, the processing and the protective measures to be applied.

A permanent seal You will only reach it if the detail points listed below are observed.

(Further information can be found in the "Guideline for the planning and execution of waterproofing of earth-contacting components with plastic-modified bituminous thick coatings", issue June 1997.)

Prepare underground

Bituminous sealing compounds - sealing with bitumen: bitumen

One thing is for sure: In this variant, a first layer of bitumen is applied to a sealing slurry.

Just as important as the care in processing the bituminous coating is the Preparation of the underground. Suitable substrates are masonry, plaster-filled concrete, plaster and old coatings (bitumen) on mineral substrates. The substrate must be firm, fine-pored and free from release agents, dust and dirt. Existing burrs are to be removed. Coarse-pored masonry can be consolidated with a synthetic resin paint.

Cracks, eruptions, voids, etc. must sealed with cement mortar or with sealing slurries become. In addition, all masonry protrusions, z. B. in the foundation area, Dichthohlkehlen with 4 to 6 cm leg length.

With heavy water In addition, the basement outer wall must be stripped to about 50 cm above groundwater level with flexible sealing slurries. For non-pressurized water, drainage in the floor area is required according to DIN 4095. Only after completion of this preliminary work can be started with the actual sealing work.

Process bitumen sealant

Bituminous sealing compounds - sealing with bitumen: compounds

On the only slightly dried first layer is then fixed a tank fleece.

Before applying the bitumen barrier mass is for binding dust to apply a primer to the substrate. Well suited for such. B. solvent-free primers. Only then, in a second operation, the bitumen thick coating with trowel or spatula is applied over the entire surface.

After the order of the first layer can be one in an advantageous manner rot-resistant material Press on existing fleece and then allow the bitumen barrier layer to dry. Subsequently, the second layer of 4 to 6 mm thickness is applied (see table).

The order must error-free and even respectively. The prescribed layer thickness must be safely adhered to at every point. In addition, the shape of a groove should be considered.

Protective measures of bitumen thick coating

Bituminous sealing compounds - sealing with bitumen: sealing

Then the second layer is applied. After final drying, one has an elastic and stable barrier. (Photos MEM)

Before filling the pit, the thick coating must be protected. This can be done by a double building foil, which is attached hanging above the thick coating. Protective coatings can also consist of thermal insulation panels or filter mats. Favorable are polystyrene foam boards which are adhered with bituminous coating. In this way you reach at the same time a thermal insulation to the outside.

Only after completion of this work and complete drying of the rubber-coated bitumen barrier layer, the excavation can be filled. Drying at 20° C and 50% relative humidity can take up to five days. Building rubble, stones and scree are unsuitable for backfilling, because they can easily damage the seal.

Required layers and their strength
Load case (cause of problem)Location sealingWet layer thickness per layer
double *
not pressing waterdouble *about 4 mm
pressing waterdouble *about 6 mm
* Immersion depth 2.5 m (up to maximum cellar depth 2.5 m)
Wet layer thickness approx. 4.5 mm = dry layer thickness approx. 3 mm
Wet layer thickness approx. 6 mm = dry layer thickness approx. 4 mm.

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