Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors


Lay the power cable yourself with the help of a specialist

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: cables

Yes, even a home improvement may lay power lines in his own home. However, the required planning and above all the electrical connection should be made by a specialist.

He knows that installation zones and knows which cable cross section is needed. He can judge how circuits split and secured Need to become.

Only with the agreement of an electricianwho specifies exactly where and which cables will be laid, the do-it-yourselfer can pull self-closing wall slots, lay the power cables and set holes for sockets and light switches using a drill bit.

For a first overview, however, it helps to take a look at the installation zones for electrical installations in advance.

Our site should provide some basic knowledge and simplify the planning. You should not mislead anyone to do the electrical installation yourself.

Veins in the pipe

The power lines that are used in a house installation are usually multicore cables, which are protected by a plastic cover. For 230 V AC systems, these are the following conductors:

  • outer conductor (also called phase, abbr.: L): The current flows through the outer conductor to the supply point
  • neutral (Abbr.: N): Through the neutral conductor, the current flows back to the power supply
  • protective conductor (Abbr.: PE): The protective earth conductor is earthed and serves for the purpose of safety, for example for the protection of living things.

Five safety rules for working on the electrical system

  1. Unlock, For example, by switching off the circuit breaker (circuit breaker) or remove the fuse.
  2. Against back on, for example, with a lock or if not at hand, mask off with a leaflet.
  3. from supply with a two-pole voltage tester with load connection determine, The pole or phase tester is not a safe test equipment. Alternatively, a multimeter which is suitable for 230 V or 400 V is sufficient.
  4. Earth and short circuit - this can usually be omitted because we should restrict our work only to final circuits. This concerns the connection of a lamp or installation of a socket.
  5. Neighboring and Restrict live parts or cover. For the layman, however, never work under tension.

Marking of conductors and lines

In order to avoid circuit errors and confusion during electrical installation, all wires in a cable / line are provided with colored insulation. The following table shows which color codes are common and which alphanumeric markings the wires have been assigned today and earlier. in principle In the case of electrical installations approved and tested cables of the respective country must be used.

Cables and cables, for example from other EU states such as Poland, are often not approved for use in Germany.

The number of cores in a line depends on the purpose. There are two big groups of types of pipes whose design is designed for specific loads: Cables for fixed installation and flexible cables for connecting devices. Below the table there is an illustrated overview of the common lines with their short names and the intended purpose.

conductor markingDesignation todayDesignation earlierNew color according to VDE 0293 Part 308
Outer conductor 1L1Rbraun¹
Outer conductor 2L2Sschwarz¹
Outer conductor 3L3Tgrau¹
neutralNMpblau²
protective conductorPESLgreen-yellow / bright³
PEN conductor (neutral conductor with protective function)PENgreen gelb³line 1
eartheenot fixed

1 These colors are not intended for a specific purpose.

² According to VDE, the blue wire (if no N is required) may also be used for other purposes. However, confusion must be ruled out.

³ According to VDE, the color combination is to be used exclusively for PE or PEN. The PEN conductor is to be executed either in yellow / green color combination and at the cable ends with blue marking or as blue wire and at the cable ends with yellow / green marking. Since 1973, the PEN conductor must have a cross section of at least 10 mm² copper or 16 mm² aluminum.

Meaning of the colors of power cables

Lines are by definition power lines laid on or under plaster as well as on or in the joints of masonry. For the soil a special strength is needed: There special cables are used, so-called underground cables.

Laying cables on surface: Sheathed cables (NYM) are used for this type of installation.

Jetty (NYIF)

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: cable

Riser (NYIF)

For installation in and under plaster in dry rooms. However, jetty lines (NYIF) are rarely used in practice. Here are special bridle needles with insulated plastic head for attachment. 90 degree directional changes are accomplished by flipping the lead. If necessary, the masonry must be something stiffened.

Sheathed cable (NYM-J)

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: marking

Sheathed cable (NYM-J)

For laying on, over, in and under plaster in dry, damp and wet rooms as well as in masonry and in concrete (except shaking, vibrating and stamped concrete).

Also for outdoor use, if they are protected from direct sunlight, for example, by a protective tube, which must be UV-resistant. The cables can be flush-mounted or laid in pipes so that they can be replaced at any time.

They are fastened here with nail clips or so-called gypsum patches. In the area of ​​floor or ceilings should generally Ductwork Find use. Surfacing can be done with NYM cables using nail clips, Kupa pipe (Plastic conduits, Stapa tube (Steel armor tube) or in cable ducts to be laid.

Who decides on the nail clip, should this in Distances of about a hammerstill length put. For pipe mounting 600 to 800 mm is a common distance. If junction boxes, switches or sockets have to be used, special bell drills make the work easier.

PVC core (abbreviation: H07V-K and H07V-U)

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: power

PVC core line

These are single cores, which are available in different colors. H07V-K cores are predominantly used in control cabinet construction and, for example, luminaires, but H07V-U cores are used in distribution systems and also in flush-mounted installations in conjunction with empty conduits.

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: power

PVC hose

Please note that the VDE i.d.r one minimum cable cross-section of 1.5 mm² pretends. When insatllation with single cores by means of conduits, it requires a good planning under consideration of many other standards. Therefore, a specialist should always be involved in the planning.

The difference between H07V-K and - U is easy to remember with a donkey bridge. The -K stands for bendable, so flexible and the -U for unknickbar, so rigid. Both cable variants are also available as H05-K and -U, which however are not used in the domestic installation.

PVC hose line (plastic cable, abbreviation: H O3 VV-F)

These wires are for the Connection of light electrical appliances (Such as table lamps, floor lamps, kitchen machines, household vacuum cleaners, office machines, radios, etc.) low mechanical stresses suitable in household, kitchens and offices.

The cables must not be used to connect cooking and heating appliances or industrial power tools and for outdoor use.

Bell wire (Kld) and bell jumper (J-FY)

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: laying

Bell wire (left) and bell riser

For fixed installation directly under plaster and only suitable for extra-low voltage (typically <50 V AC and <120 V DC, in wet rooms <25 V AC and <60 V DC).

Rubber hose (H 05 RR - F)

The wires are intended for the connection of electrical appliances (eg vacuum cleaners, irons, kitchen appliances, cookers, toasters, soldering irons, etc.) with low mechanical stress in households, kitchens and offices. These lines may also be laid permanently, eg. B. in furniture, decorative panels or cavities of prefabricated components. The cables are not suitable for permanent use outdoors or for connecting industrial power tools.

Rubber hose H 05 RN - F

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: cable

Rubber cable

Suitable for use with medium mechanical stress in dry, damp and wet rooms and outdoors (eg for appliances in commercial and agricultural enterprises such as large cauldrons, hot plates, hand lamps, power tools such as drills, circular saws, DIY tools).

you are also suitable for fixed installation on plaster as well as in provisional buildings and residential barracks.

Highly flexible rubber hose (abbreviation: H O7 RN-F)

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: laying

Highly flexible rubber hose line

Definitely for the Use for medium mechanical stresses in dry, damp and wet rooms and outdoors (eg for appliances in commercial and agricultural establishments such as large cauldrons, heating plates, hand lamps, power tools such as drills, circular saws, DIY tools).

They are also suitable for permanent installation on plaster as well as in temporary buildings and residential barracks.

Twin line H 03 VH - Y: light twin line

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: cable

twin cable

To a line with the code H 03 VH-Y only very light hand tools, z. As electric toothbrushes to be connected. They may only be used in lengths of up to 2 m and must be fitted with non-detachable plugs. The current load must not exceed 0.2A.

Twin line H 03 VH - H: Twin line

These wires are for the Connection of light electrical appliances (such as radios, table lamps, clocks, etc.) with very low mechanical stresses in household, kitchens and offices. They are not suitable for the connection of cooking and heating appliances as well as for the use in the free one, in commercial enterprises or for the connection of electric tools.

Strip the cables and strip them

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: power

Cable knife with stripping device

  1. Place the stripping device in the desired position. To do this, press the counterhold with your thumb upwards and insert the cable. Relax the counterholder and the cable is held in the stripping device.
  2. With spring force, the anvil pushes the cable onto the movable blade, which automatically adapts to the direction of movement. Twist the cable knife 1-2 times around the cable to cut the sheath.
  3. Now the cable knife is pulled with the Abmantelvorrichtung against the cable end. The blade aligns alone in the cutting direction.
  4. The sheath is cut by the knife and can now be easily removed. The only slight incision ensures that the wires are not damaged.

The cable knife with stripping device is particularly suitable when longer cables have to be stripped. Due to the longitudinal section, the sheath can be easily separated and does not have to be pulled over the cable.

Strippers

The stripper is incapable of cutting the casing longitudinally. Accordingly, only shorter areas can be stripped, since the removal of longer pieces requires a greater effort.

His advantage On the other hand, it is possible to remove sheathing almost flush with the wall or in waste boxes.

  • The stripper has inside small blades that cuts the sheath. Place the cable in the stripper with the blades at the desired position.
  • Squeeze the stripper and turn it back and forth a few times. The sheath is thus cut at the desired location. For thicker lines, make sure that the blades only penetrate into the outer sheath.
  • If necessary, bend the cable a little until the sheathing tears at the cut point. Then it can simply be removed.

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: marking

Dismantle wiring harness in three steps.

Remove stripping with the wire stripper

Routing cables: Laying power cable, marking of conductors: marking

  1. Adjust the length stop to the desired dimension.
  2. Then insert the conductor. The special scanning system of the pliers adjusts automatically to the conductor cross-section.
  3. Then simply press the pliers - and you're done!
  4. To cut wires, insert the wire cutter.

Then the individual wires are connected with terminals. You can find it in the hardware store Can and Wago clamps in all common cross-sections. For flexible cables, where each wire consists of a bundle of copper wires, you must use the stripped end pieces with ferrules equip out of metal. Push the sleeve over the conductor bundle and with the Aderendhülsenzange zuquetschen.

Similar sites

  • Carpet Tiles: Lay self-adhesive and self-laying carpet tiles
  • Lay tiles correctly
  • Lay bitumen shingles
  • PVC: polyvinyl chloride as floor covering
  • Lay vinyl flooring - glue and click system
  • Laying large tiles - this is how it works
  • installation zones
  • Lay laminate - Floating laying with glueing
  • Lay carpet and carpet
  • Laying Click Laminate - Instructions for Do-it-yourselfers
  • Lay lawn edge stones and place lawn completion stones for the lawn edge
  • Lay and glue OSB boards


Video Board: Running Cables with Super Rod Tricks of the Trade