Determine edible mushrooms

When collecting forest mushrooms, it is important to pay attention to subtle optical aberrations: Many edible mushrooms are confusingly similar to their poisonous doppelgangers. If the wrong mushroom is consumed, it can have fatal consequences in the worst case. But the majority of edible mushrooms is raw inedible, with the exception of cultivated varieties, such as champignon, which is often used for salad upgrading. In our picture gallery we have put together different edible mushroom varieties for you.


Contents: Mushrooms determine

  • Eyes open while collecting mushrooms
  • Beware of raw mushrooms
  • Recognize mushrooms
  • Birch mushroom (Leccinum scabrum)
  • Bottle stingling ring (Lycoperdon perlatum)
  • Gold pipe (Suillus grevillei)
  • Honey yellow hamburger (Armillaria mellea)
  • Bonnet morel (Morchella semilibera)
  • Chestnut pipe (Imleria badia)
  • Summer mushroom (Boletus aestivalis)
  • Detect toadstools

Eyes open while collecting mushrooms

If you are looking for mushrooms in the wild, you should be absolutely sure about the type of mushroom. Since many non-toxic mushrooms are quickly confused with deadly poisonous specimens, the highest level of awareness is recommended. A quick mushroom meal from spontaneously collected mushrooms can be life-threatening for all consumers, because even small amounts of mushroom meat from highly toxic varieties are sufficient to cause liver damage, acute kidney failure, respiratory paralysis or severe hallucinations.

Find out in advance in appropriate literature and ask a mushroom expert. Let unknown mushrooms continue to grow - even fresh mushrooms from the supermarket can be prepared tasty and are guaranteed non-toxic.

Beware of raw mushrooms

Only very few mushrooms are easily digestible. These are special crops, such as the mushroom or herbal noodles. Almost every non-toxic fungus that can be found in the forest must be processed before consumption. If the mushrooms are cooked, you should dispose of the water afterwards. Even a long searing or steaming decomposes the incompatible ingredients and makes the mushrooms a delicious side dish.

Recognize mushrooms

When looking for edible mushrooms, it is important not to rely solely on technical aids, images or descriptions in specialist literature or the Internet. The correct determination always requires the expert opinion of a fungal expert in order to prevent fungal poisoning.

Birch mushroom (Leccinum scabrum)

Birch mushroom (Leccinum scabrum)


Edible mushroom: not poisonous, but is under conservation

The birch mushroom comes from the family of the Dickröhrlingsartigen and grows from June to October particularly frequently within a birch area. The 5-15 cm wide, gray-brown to reddish-gray-brown hat is initially hemispherical and becomes flatter with age. The white stem is irregular, dark-skinned and tapers upwards.

The birch mushroom is protected in Germany and may only be collected in small quantities for private use. The edible mushroom can be fully utilized if the individual components are not already wormy. In older specimens, the tubes are removed for flavor reasons and the rest is cut into thin slices and steamed.

Bottle stingling ring (Lycoperdon perlatum)

Bottle stingling ring (Lycoperdon perlatum)


Young mushroom is raw edible but unsuitable for cooking

The bottle stinging ring is often referred to as Flaschenbovis and belongs to the fungus genus of the Stäublinge and the family of mushroom relatives. The bright fruiting body is bottle-shaped, while the surface is covered with many conical warts and spines. With age, the mushrooms turn gray brown and are then no longer edible. The pulp in the head eventually breaks down into spore powder, which can escape from a crest and is spread by the wind.

Young, white bottle stings are also raw edible at this stage. When cooking, the mushroom, however, quickly tough, so it should be fried only briefly in butter.

Gold pipe (Suillus grevillei)

Gold pipe (Suillus grevillei)

suillus grevillei

Edible mushroom - not poisonous

The Gold-Röhrling belongs to the family of the Schmußröhrlingsverwandten and forms as a young mushroom a hemispherical, later padded or flat hat, which is between 5 and 15 cm wide. Striking is its orange-yellow to lemon yellow or russet uniform color. The broad stem can be up to 10 cm long. The Gold-Röhrling grows between June and November predominantly under the European larch, it was also sighted at this time under Douglas fir.

The Gold Röhrling is a valued edible mushroom. Before consumption, the skin of the hat cap is removed, as it is quickly very slimy.

Honey yellow hamburger (Armillaria mellea)

Honey yellow hamburger (Armillaria mellea)

Honeydew, honey yellow

Raw and insufficiently heated toxic - boil mushrooms several times before frying

The honey-yellow Hallimasch is also called Stuppling and belongs to the family of Physalacriaceae. The color of the 4-10 cm wide hat is reminiscent of honey and the Hutrand is characteristically curled in young fruit bodies. The stem can be up to 17 cm long and is bundled with other stems to a pseudo root, so more and more mushrooms are next to each other. The fruiting bodies show up between June and November and often occur at the base of living trees. Since the fungus also attacks trees, it is classified as a forest pest.

Raw or insufficiently heated, the honey yellow hamburger is toxic and triggers gastrointestinal complaints. The toxins, however, are water-soluble and become unstable at higher temperatures, so that repeated boiling helps to remove the toxins - the cooking water is disposed of afterwards. With simultaneous consumption of alcohol it can come to nausea. Preferably, only the caps are eaten.

Bonnet morel (Morchella semilibera)

Bonnet morel (Morchella semilibera)


Edible, but not raw - is under nature conservation

The cape morel is a hose mushroom type and belongs to the genus of morels. Visually, the mushroom is structured in a dark hat and light stalk. The hat is light to dark brown with black longitudinal ribs, while the thin-fleshed, hollow stem at the base is slightly thickened and about 4 to 8 cm high. The fruiting bodies show up in moist, humus-rich meadows, parks and gardens from April to May.

The cape-morel mushroom is a edible mushroom, but should be collected wisely, since it is under protection in Germany. Raw mushroom, like all Morchelarten, should not be consumed. The expensive delicacy mushroom is first washed and halved to remove worms or other animals in the hollow stems. Then cook the mushrooms for at least five minutes before further processing.

Chestnut pipe (Imleria badia)

Chestnut pipe (Imleria badia)

Boletus badius

Tasty food mushroom - raw inedible

Due to its dark brown hat color, the chestnut sirloin is also popularly known as brown cape or simply chestnut, and belongs to the fungal family of the Dickröhrling relatives. The tubes are initially bright and later turn olive-yellow. On pressure they blue strongly what experts call amyloid reaction. The irregularly curved hat is up to 15 wide and has a greasy-sticky surface in damp weather. The fruiting bodies can be found from July to November under larches and in old spruce forests.

If you want to prepare chestnut pipe, you should take to young specimens, as this fungus is often worm-eaten in old age. From a raw consumption is not recommended, but the brown cape is good for drying and for mushroom dishes. In southern Germany, the Huthaut should be deducted, as this can significantly reduce the radioactive contamination. As part of the German Mushroom Day, the chestnut pipe was named Mushroom of the Year 2016.

Summer mushroom (Boletus aestivalis)

Summer mushroom (Boletus aestivalis)

Summer cep

Edible mushroom - is under nature protection

The Sommersteinpilz is a mushroom type of the Dickröhrlingsverwandten family and can already be found in the forest in May. The mushroom is comparatively large: The hat can be up to 25 cm wide and the stem 18 cm long. The fine-felted hat surface shows up in varying shades of brown, often the marginal fibers are slightly darker. The summer cep mushroom lives in symbiosis with trees (mycorrhiza): It is in contact with the fine root system of the tree and is therefore mainly found next to beech, spruce, pine and oak.

Like all mushroom species of the genus Boletus, the summer cep mushroom is protected in Germany. This means that it can be collected in the wild only in small quantities for their own needs. The Sommersteinpilz is raw wholesome, but it can also be processed to numerous mushroom dishes: even large mushrooms have here a tasty solid meat. Because porcini mushrooms can store heavy metals and radioactive substances well, wild mushroom meals should only be eaten once a week. Pregnant, breastfeeding and children should not eat porcini mushrooms from the forest.


Detect toadstools

The confusion of a mushroom with its poisonous doppelganger can have life-threatening consequences: Even small amounts of mushroom meat can lead to serious organ damage and poisoning symptoms after consumption. Here we show toadstools, which should be avoided. Detect toadstools

Video Board: Identify Wild Mushrooms & Edible Mushrooms With Peter Jordan