Blooming in masonry - just a question of beauty?

There is dangerous moisture in the game that does not have to be found at this point. Says the construction man, when he has to do with efflorescence in the masonry. Fast help and, above all, sound cause research are required. What and when by whom and why to do, you read it with us.

Damage that is often hidden

The sight is anything but aesthetic when homeowners are dealing with efflorescence in masonry that is difficult to recognize, at least in its early stages. The faster these places spread with theirs streak-like washeswhose cause is usually quite deep and heralds the beginning of a gradual but thorough decomposition process within the wall or under a layer of mortar. Quite deep because the origin is often found in a moistened foundation for a long time, which not uncommon for rough construction defects indicates if the property in question is only a few years old.

In the past everything was better on the building !?

Maybe it was built more solid and longer. Also the Price pressure on construction companies, was less pronounced 30 or 40 years ago. Today one leaves here once a Dämmfolie and exchanges at another place high-quality against cheap building material. After all, it was hard to calculate under cost price to get the job and at the Bauendabnahme, no one will notice. Incorrect - building materials are today highly complex materials that require exact processing. Gone are the days "A stone, a lime, a beer." It is not difficult to see from the top ten of the construction defects Moisture and Baupfusch in frequency an immense role plays, which would bring us back to the blooming masonry.

Where is the quality of construction the most important?

A little deeper we have to penetrate into matter, if only with this small and self-explanatory Overview of the most common construction defects, It was founded in 2016 by the association for quality control in construction e. V. is based on studies of 6,000 SUPPORTED construction sites. At least the fat-marked complaints stand in causal connection with the blooming masonry.

1. plaster and / or masonry have cracks;
2. Window reveals are moistened;
3. leaks of the vapor barrier;
4. floor access staircase was installed incorrectly;
5. Loft has not been vented;
6. leaks in the basement;
7. cracks in load-bearing wooden parts;
8. Drainage at the cellar outside staircase is missing;
9. Wrong expansion joints on screed;
10. Leakage of ventilation systems;

That we have it with such defects do not have to do with trifles or blemishes, should be clear, as well as the fact that the moderately experienced hobby craftsman alone with the limitation of damage during efflorescence in masonry is a real challenge.

Restructuring measures start with cause research

Containing and controlling moisture is one of the most difficult tasks in construction, as the causes can be very diverse. In addition to often encountered building moisture, by the so-called Mixing water in the mortar or plaster It can be mechanical damage to gutters, roof coverings or drainage, and even intense driving rain is perfectly capable of penetrating walls over 40 cm thick. The salts contained in the water dissolve to co-migrate with the moisture contained in the masonry. Subsequently, crystals form during the natural evaporation process, and over time, these characteristic efflorescence forms on the masonry. First of all, there are increasing cracks that eventually break off the plaster.

The causes of efflorescence on the masonry are deeper

The masonry is most visually comparable to the capillary system of plants in which the moisture rises so long that it can be released by evaporation to the outside air. Bad or sometimes even not executed vertical or horizontal barriers favor this process, which can then only be gotten under control by costly remedial measures. No problem for the layman, as long as the affected structure is merely the base of a garage or a gazebo. Residential buildings are also in the interest of possible consequential damage and the health of the residents, Professional advice and expert assistance is essential.

Discolouration is (almost) always an indication of moisture damage

Often these efflorescence, which occurs in the form of a visible veil, even on relatively new brickwork, can be detected in different forms, which also recognizes a layman in the field of construction very quickly. The most common manifestations include:

  • White stripes in the vertical direction are in all likelihood calcium deposits
  • Light gray or white efflorescence, which gradually become a solid crust and settle on the several stones (gypsum).
  • Light deposits between dry and damp sections of the masonry (escape of salts).
  • Dark, streaky leaching of silicates, which are visible over a large area.

A quick solution has to be found

Gypsum crust can be removed under certain circumstances and in the event that it is not too advanced mechanically. And also the salt deposits, which often occur at the beginning when blooming in the brickwork, can be eliminated with a good portion of water and several washes. But even aggressive chemicals are almost powerless against silicates and these deposits are also extremely hard. But even if it works, it does not eliminate the root cause of the beginning of the deterioration of the damaged wall or wall. Therefore, you should under no circumstances do the following:

Seal the wall and you're done?

With the promises of construction chemistry you go better carefully and in each case object-related Because the treatment of the wall with water-repellent solutions is certainly not THE solution. Gladly be offered to combat efflorescence in the masonry paints with a synthetic resin dispersion, the coating of infested sites with water glass (a silicate) or the hydrophobing with silicates and sold. However, each of these variants prevents a desired desiccation of the wall and thus completely prevents the capillary conductivity of the building material. Protective measures can therefore be out of the question, since with such a seal the opposite is achieved. Primat has at this point an effective and permanent repair of all leaks and cracks.

Efflorescence on the masonry - how far does self-help go?

It must be different at the beginning, whether it concerns a new building, for which possibly still warranty claims exist or whether an old building is to be renovated. In the case of moisture damage - and otherwise it is efflorescence in the masonry - it is imperative that you first consult a specialist, because only he is in a position to assess how best to deal with such damage and especially where he is comes from.

What work could be done on the builders

The highest principle: In the case of such renovations, the materials of the currently existing building stock, the new building materials to be used and the use of the building must be taken into account and harmonized with each other. In addition, even with the most careful draining, a residual moisture will remain due to the already stored pollutants. The corresponding value can be at Old buildings at 5 to 10 percent and newly built real estate at 0.5 to 1.5 percent lie. Proven building materials for old buildings need not be used for the renovation of new buildings. It is the other way around, and that is why the question of material and methodology of remediation work on efflorescence in masonry is a case for the construction specialist.

Renew mortar when cleaning exterior

Since plaster mortar should always be particularly stable on the outer skin, the lime is always happy to add a little more cement than really needs to be. Consequence: Due to the residual salts present in the old masonry, cementitious mortar is subsequently destroyed even faster. Helpful is the use of so-called rehabilitation plasters, which later have much higher stability and a particularly high resistance to moisture influences, but are viewed critically from the building biology point of view.

Horizontal barriers outsmart the capillary system

Therefore, moisture in buildings, for example, near soil near propagate only so far up until it is shut off by suitable material. In older buildings used to be lead mats and special Tarpappen for insulation. Today moisture barriers made of fabric, metal inserts or impermeable corrugated and nubbed sheets made of synthetic materials for horizontal and vertical sealing. In order to renew damaged horizontal barriers as a result of efflorescence of the masonry, these are usually completely replaced. For example by:

  • Manual removal between the foundation and the rising masonry;
  • Cutting or sawing (generous in the area of ​​the detected efflorescence);
  • Collections of additional steel corrugated sheets (for this, horizontal brick joints must be prepared with the aid of a jackhammer, which causes vibrations in the building fabric).
  • Core locks that are sealed with watertight concrete (not an absolute outlet of moisture, but rather a method of insulation).

Renovation work on efflorescence in masonry is costly

But this small and by no means complete overview of the work that can be attributed to a real estate owner, if efflorescence in masonry and especially their causes must be eliminated shows that in such cases not only special tools and equipment, but also the absolutely right building material and a certain expertise in building physics required are. In addition, there is usually a lot of money, because the total damage to the building is often not recognizable at first glance, apart from the ever deteriorating quality of living quite apart. For old buildings, it may therefore be worthwhile to combine these works with an energetic renovation of the building or parts thereof.

The best way to get funding

Whether it is a low-interest loan or a state subsidy - homeowners willing to redevelop their property, a well-filled subsidy fund is available from the federal government, federal states, local authorities and even energy providers. round 6,000 of these programs There are currently, which are combinable, or mutually exclusive. Every promotion from the state is individual. The promotion does not exist and who nevertheless wants to fully exploit its possibilities, can not avoid a so-called energy efficiency expert (which, incidentally, can also be subsidized by the state at the request of KfW). In addition, these experts plan and accompany the entire refurbishment project from a technical construction perspective, which, as the client, also gives you the necessary security with regard to competent construction.

Efflorescence in the brickwork is a complex refurbishment case

Andreas Skrypietz, energy consultant and head of the Climate Protection and Information Campaign "Restoring the house - benefiting" from the German Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU) points out in the trade journal "Haus & Markt" of April 2016 that "ideally facades of all kinds should be regularly or remediation experts should be investigated for vulnerabilities. In any case, the homeowner should at least once a year even the outer walls under the magnifying glass. "If you notice any problems, such as efflorescence in the masonry or damage to the facade, should not repair itself, but Seek advice from an expert.

If there are already noticeable cracks over a larger area of ​​the façade wall and obviously make a new plaster, it is appropriate to worry about an energy-efficient facade insulation. This saves not only a high financial outlay, but also double costs for site security, scaffolding and any necessary restoration of the grounds of the property.

Tips & Tricks

Eliminating efflorescence in the masonry is not a cosmetic remedy for unsightly paint on the building, which can be removed by the way. There may be a variety of causes behind it that need to be carefully analyzed and eventually eliminated. Certain works in the context of structural rehabilitation can be done by well-trained DIY enthusiasts themselves well. Forgoing expert advice in advance, however, can have fatal (and financial) consequences.

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