Filaments for 3D printing

Filaments for 3D printing: filaments

The from the 3D printer Processed plastic is called filament and can be used in two different shapes be used. Find common usage Do the washing upon which the consumables are wound as a thin wire. However, there are also printers that come with Sticks - similar to the hot glue gun - work. However, this variant is used less frequently.

Filaments come with many different properties of soft to hard, fluorescent, with color change and even on wood base, However, with different characteristics, the price often changes, so the cheap PLA should be used to practice.

It also takes some time for all the values ​​of the printer and the software to be set correctly. Only then should one dare to expensive and certainly interesting filament.

Processing of filament

Filament on coils differs in the diameter of the wire as well as in the material. The diameter already forms an important quality feature. Since the printer can measure neither the flow rate of the filament, nor the printed mass, the supplied amount and thus the diameter of the filament must be exactly right.

The Feeding is usually done by a gear, which presses on the filament and pushes with the turn into the hot end. There, the filament is heated and pressed by another tracking in the pressure nozzle. The Tracking thus decides how much filament will come out of the nozzle, As the diameter of the filament varies, so does the volume of the feed and thus the amount of printed material. Decisive for a good printing result is thus the constant diameter of the filament.

Filament is available in different diameters - Common sizes are 1.75 mm and 3 mm, Which format is used, in principle, does not matter because the nozzle diameter on the applied quantity and thus decides on the printing result. However, the thinner the filament is, the easier and more accurate it can be dosed. With a centimeter filament of 1.75 mm thickness about 24 mm³ are processed, with a 3 mm filament already almost 70 mm³. Smallest fluctuations in the advance of the filament therefore have a clearer effect on a larger diameter.

Filament materials for different properties

Theoretically, in a 3D printer all materials can be processed that liquefy when heated and then return to their original state. With appropriate technology, this would even work with glass, metal and ceramics. However, private use is limited to materials that are easier to work with.


ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is a purely synthetic material, somewhat harder to process than PLA, but a very popular filament due to its superior properties. ABS is heat-resistant, however, gives one during processing unpleasant smell so always for one adequate ventilation must be taken care of. The processing temperature is included 215° C to 250° C and a heated bed of 100° C should be available.


Bendlay is a relative soft and flexible filament and still has enough stability to make it Cups or vases to design. Interesting is the clear and slightly silvery shiny lookwhich is very similar to the polycarbonate. It is flexible, resistant and even food safe, The printing properties are very similar to those of ABS.


Is a very natural expression than Architecture model wanted, comes Laybrick used. The sand-colored print can be subsequently paint, mechanically edit by grinding operations and is up to about 70° C temperature resistant, Practical in model making is the possibility with one different temperature to change the surface texture, Between 165° C and 190° C, this is very smooth and will increase with increasing temperature from 200° C rough, At higher temperatures you should work with a fan and do not touch or move the finished model during the cooling time. Due to the slow solidification, there is no warp effect when printing (distortion of the printing model).


Wood print? Yes, that works with Laywood. This filament consists of recycled wood fibers and one Binder as a carrier material, The finished model can be - like wood - work with a saw or file and also grind, The clou is the possibility of using different temperature to change the color, In the range of about 175° C to 250° C may Laywood of light to dark be printed so that a real wood grain can be imitated.


PA - polyamides are synthetic plastics with special features that are especially in their Strength and toughness distinguished. By various additives can change the material properties and special requirements. The Processing temperature is about 240° C.


PC stands for polycarbonate and features a very hard, heat resistant up to 100° C, but also optically clear filamentwhich is itself very good machining process leaves. However, the relatively high heat resistance requires a higher melting point and thus a Extruder temperature of up to 350° C, That too Printing bed should be preheated well up to 130° C because the very high pressure temperature makes the warp effect almost impossible to avoid. PC filament requires good experience in dealing with the 3D printer and is not suitable for beginners.


PLA polylactides are the most commonly used filament for 3D printing. They are relative to the heating odorless, recyclable and easy to apply, Allow different compositions varying properties and endless colors, The processing temperature is included 170° C - 200° C and a preheater of the Print bed up to 60° C makes sense.


PVA polyvinyl alcohol is not seen as a common filament. Because it water soluble is, it is mainly as support material used to allow the pressure of strong overhangs. For this, PVA is in desired Cavities or under overhangs printed and provides additional layers of the desired filament one secure hold, However, this is necessary Dual-Extruderwhich is able to switch between the filament PVA and another. The finished print object then needs just put in cold water in which the PVA filament dissolves completely.

Processing temperatures of different filaments

Processing material filamentProcessing temperature Hot Endprint speedTemperature heated bed
SECTION215 - 250° C40 - 80mm / s100-125° C
BendLay215-240° C40 - 80mm / s90-115° C
LAYBRICK170-200° C30 - 50mm / s0 - 70° C
LAYWOOD170-200° C40 - 80mm / s0 - 0° C
PA220 - 250° C20 - 40mm / s0 - 80° C
PC215-350° C20-30mm / s130° C
PLA170-200° C20 - 40mm / s0 - 60° C
PVA190-210° C20 - 40mm / s0 - 60° C

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Video Board: What I learned from reviewing 30 different filaments! #Filaween