Fire protection - you have to know that

Fires can be incredibly destructive. In the case of a fire can - even in private homes - thus cause a huge loss. In order to prevent this in advance, there are special fire protection paints - in order to benefit from it, but you have to know about them sufficiently.

Where fire protection coatings and coatings are used

Fire not only causes the burning of materials, but even with refractory material, such as steel, it can very quickly lead to structural weaknesses, and thus to the collapse of the building.

Even at 500° C steel loses its strength - but an angry fire often reaches such temperatures after only 5 to 10 minutes. Particularly in steel construction, fire protection coatings are therefore of particular importance, since steel girders would maintain the entire building and would collapse immediately upon yielding.

Another thing is flammable materials - such as wood or wood paneling. If they catch fire, they are usually completely destroyed within a very short time, depending on the construction, this can also result in the collapse of the building.

Flammable fabrics additionally add to the fire and provide enough food in otherwise incombustible or flame-retardant environments for the fire to spread. There are agents for both wood and textiles that make them flame retardant.

Fire protection coatings on steel and other metals

Protecting steel from the effects of fire is primarily about delaying the attainment of the temperature at which steel loses its strength for as long as possible.

The classifications of the individual paints are also based on this period of time - F30 and F60 mean 30 or 60 minutes of fire resistance duration, and with special methods theoretically an F90 protection can also be achieved.

To protect steel, one uses the principle of intumescence.

From a temperature of about 200° C, the paint begins to foam and form a so-called microporous "carbon foam", which decomposes only very slowly with increasing temperature and forms an insulating insulating layer for the steel.

The aim is to shield the steel from the effects of heat for as long as possible. For even higher fire resistance periods, such as protection of class F90, which is already theoretically possible today, mainly plate constructions are used - in practice, however, it has so far been found almost nowhere.

Fire protection paint for wood

The fact that wood is flammable is a truism - but it can just as easily be made incombustible - or at least very flammable. All it takes is one coat of paint with a special fire retardant paint that can be used on wood trim and many other flammable materials that are not absorbent.

In case of fire, this is an important obstacle to the spread of a fire - if nothing is combustible, the fire can not spread. Especially in the event area and in larger public spaces, this is important, since there is a high volume of public traffic - but also in the home.

Fire protection impregnation for textiles and absorbent materials

Home textiles, but also decorations, curtains or tapestries in public areas play a major role in the spread of fire. With a suitable impregnation, almost all textile fabrics can be made almost completely fireproof - or at least flame retardant.

Install fire-retardant paints and impregnations

In steel construction, the application of intumescent materials must be carried out by qualified specialist companies, which must also certify the corresponding fire resistance class. There are precise regulations for all corresponding approved components here.

Steel and metal components are only made fireproof by specialist companies.

Wood and textiles in the home, but also in public venues, you can even easily fire-safe make: For wood and panels here is a special paint used, which you either roll up, spray on or apply with a brush.

As a clearcoat, it remains completely invisible, but there are also paint colors with fire retardant effect. Textiles are usually simply sprayed onto the materials to be treated. However, attention should be paid to the ingredients - they should not have negative effects on the environment or on health.

Lacquers and impregnations should not exude or contain toxic or potentially harmful substances and be biodegradable. This is far from true for all products.

Products and prices

Insulating foam coatings for steel components can usually only be acquired by specialist companies authorized for this purpose - in addition, their processing requires appropriate expertise.

Products for the treatment of wood and cladding are also commonly found in well-stocked hardware stores - prices vary by product, and there are also different manufacturers on the market. As a rule, most products require around 0.5 kg of paint for one square meter of wood when it comes to intumescent paints. Clearcoats are usually sold in the liter range.

For a 5 kg container usually about 15 - 25 € are required, the liter of clear coat is around 25 €.

Impregnating agents for textiles made of natural fiber usually cost about 10 euros per liter, for synthetic fabrics usually about twice.

For special applications, especially in the event area, impregnating agents for paper and cardboard are also available, which can also be used for straw and straw decorations and also usually cost around 10 euros per liter.

The treatment of literally dangerous substances in the household is therefore associated with no great expense and should therefore be carried out in any case - in case of fire, the damage remains so limited, the fire can not spread and there are no toxic gases through the Burning synthetic textiles or fabric-covered furniture.

Fire-retardant fabrics were once crucial to the war

The coming attack of the German army caused panic in Stalingrad. It was feared that the Luftwaffe would use firebombs to set fire to the wooden attics of the houses in the city and thus reduce everything to ashes. But a resourceful chemist managed to produce a fire-retardant coating in large quantities and distribute it to the inhabitants before the attack. It probably must have been chlorinated zinc, but it could also have been iron vitriol or copper vitriol. In any case, the city remained healthy - the attics could not be inflamed. That meant a defeat for the attackers, which made it all the more difficult.

The Germans themselves used a mixture of water glass, chalk, asbestos and kieselguhr on the home front to make the rafters of their houses incombustible. Even slaked lime is good as a fire retardant, it even works very well.

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