Plant a fruit tree

Plant fruit trees

Fresh fruit from our own garden tastes best. Of course there is no room for mighty fruit trees in a small ornamental garden. However, nobody has to do without self-grown fruit. Today, the trade offers a wide range of trellises, which are particularly suitable for warm south or west walls on the house. From many classic fruit trees there are already small-sized forms, which also fit into a small garden. If you have a lot of space in your garden, you can not only plant a fruit tree, but also plant a whole orchard. How the soil should be designed and what should be considered when selecting fruit trees, we explain here.

apple tree

Contents: Planting a fruit tree

  • Fruit trees as useful and ornamental plants
  • Ideal conditions for fruit trees
  • Space and fruit selection
  • Sorts for fruit trees
  • Plant fruit trees
  • When will a fruit tree be planted?
  • When to cut fruit tree?
  • Fertilization and soil care

Fruit trees as useful and ornamental plants

If you want to plant a fruit tree, you first have to deal with the demands of the different types of fruit, because not every tree is suitable for every location. Also the soil claims of the fruit types differ. What they all have in common is that they need the deepest possible soil to the roots. Any existing soil compaction should be removed before the fruit tree plants.

Nectarines, apricots, peaches and other southern fruits thrive only in sufficiently warm areas. Very well suited here, for example, a wine-growing climate or a climatically similar location. Also, sweet and sour cherries are grateful for a warm location, as are the different pear varieties. With apple trees, there is now a very large selection, so that these fruit trees are also available for rougher locations. However, particularly delicate apple varieties should be avoided here.

Raspberries, blackberries and redcurrants can be grown almost everywhere, as are plums. Again, there are special varieties that are considered particularly robust. Low-growing and early-flowering fruit species are more prone to frost than semi or high stems. Therefore, care should also be taken with these crops on the right location.

Ideal conditions for fruit trees

In order to make the right choice of variety, it is advisable to look around at experienced fruit growers in the region. Especially from their many years of experience, the layman can benefit greatly. The recommendations issued by the Chambers of Agriculture also provide a good indication of the cultivation of fruit in their own garden.

Space and fruit selection

Apple trees become spreading and bear many fruits.

apple tree

Fruit trees need plenty of space. In a large garden, of course, there is usually enough room for beautiful apple trees and juicy cherries. But it may be more advantageous for smaller gardens to stick to the small tree forms. Many varieties of fruit are now designed by weak-growing documents that can be harvested from the ground. These trees do not need so much space either. In addition, so-called pillar fruit is available, which is only one meter wide and grows mainly in the height. These fruit trees can even be kept in sufficiently large containers on the terrace.

If you want to green an unsightly house wall, special new varieties offer themselves at the trellis. Here, the fruit trees grow deliberately flat in shape and finally form an opaque wall that can be easily harvested.

When selecting fruit, it should also be remembered that not too many fruits are ripening at the same time. Depending on whether it is a small or large household, often not everything can be used immediately. Ripening time and shelf life as well as the location play an important role in the selection of the fruit trees.

Sorts for fruit trees

In order to be able to orientate themselves easier in the trade, the fruit trees are divided according to their height. Differences are:

Bush trees or spindles
: Trunk length from 40 to 60 cm
Lower tribes
: Trunk height from 80 to 100 cm
half tribes: Trunk height from 100 to 120 cm
high strains: Minimum trunk length from 160 to 180 cm

Plant fruit trees

When planting distance of fruit trees may be thoughtfully generous. For the supposedly correct planting distance in fruit tree plants often proves to be too narrow after a few years. It is important to start with the plants, how tall and expansive the tree once becomes. Accordingly, the tree should be given enough space so that it does not shade smaller plants or neighboring properties.

An example: A high trunk needs at least 120 square meters of space in old age, this corresponds to a radius of about 6 meters.

In the fruit tree plants, it is best to two: While one holds the tree, the other can fill the earth. First, however, the soil is largely loosened and the planting hole dug. It should be at least twice as large as the root ball, so that the roots are not unnecessarily narrowed and can unfold and spread well. It is important to ensure that the tree is not used deeper into the earth, as was previously the case in the nursery. For container plants, the top edge of the root ball should be flush with the top edge of the soil. If your tree has a finishing point, it must always remain about 15 cm above the ground to avoid rooting. The finishing point is identified by the thickening at the bottom of the stem.

For a straight growth and a sufficient stability provides a robust support pole made of wood. Once the planting hole is dug, the stake is used so as not to injure the sensitive roots. Danger: The trunk and stake must not touch each other later. Once the tree has been inserted, the processed excavated material is filled in, started well and, if necessary, some more soil is filled in, so that a practical casting margin is created around the tree disk. Then everything is poured vigorously, so close the last cavities in the substrate.

The planting hole is about twice as large as the root ball.

Lift planting hole

A bark mulch layer helps to store moisture in the soil.

precautions

When will a fruit tree be planted?

Every hobby gardener is interested in waiting for the appropriate planting time to give his fruit tree an optimal start. Experts recommend the autumn as the right season to plant fruit trees in the soil. Winter hardy fruit trees, such as apple, pear, sweet and sour cherry and plum, should always be planted between October and November, as the trees have more time to form new roots and can already store enough water before their vegetative break. In the spring, the trees also sprout faster and can invest all their energy in the formation of new shoots and buds because they are already well rooted.

In order for the trees to grow well, attention should be paid to quality at the time of purchase and the substrate should be optimally processed. Here, the trunk height of the fruit trees in particular from the space available in their own garden. Spindle trees, which grow rather slowly, are also suitable for smaller gardens. High trunks and half trunks, on the other hand, need sufficient space because they form a spreading crown and exert a high competitive pressure on smaller plants.

When to cut fruit tree?

Even before planting unnecessary shoots should be cut off.

Cut branches

In order for the harvest to be lavish in the summer, the cut in fruit trees must be technically correct. If you have never cut a fruit tree, you can get the help of an experienced gardener the first time. If the tree is cut improperly, rotting branches and fungus can be the result.

plant section
First, the rival drive is removed to the middle drive. Then middle drive and side shoots are shortened. Generally, around four to five healthy side shoots should be maintained to get a shapely crown. Even before planting, all excess branches should be cut off.

In the first year
Immediately after planting in the autumn follows the so-called planting. Possible competition drives on the center drive are completely removed, the remaining branches are only shortened.

In the second stand year
In spring, steep branches are weighted or deliberately tied down so that they grow horizontally. Only then can flowers and fruits be formed as early as the second year and a shapely crown is created. These impulses are not shortened in the second year.

From the third stand year
If new branches that are too steep are formed, they will be removed or radically shortened. The same applies to overlong shoots, water shoots or inwards or overlapping growing branches. The treetop should remain light and air permeable even after a few years of existence.

Summer cut for fruit trees
For fast-growing fruit trees, summer clipping is extremely important. This slows down growth and promotes the formation of new fruit shoots. Particularly important are the cutting measures in the summer in strongly growing apple trees and sweet and sour cherries. The right time is late July to early August. Then the end buds are completely formed in the new shoots and also clearly visible. Strong water shoots, which grow vertically upwards, are removed directly at the base and the large cut surfaces treated with tree wax. In medium-strong shoots, one falls back on the rosette cut, so that finally only a small wreath of three leaves stops on the shoot.

The general rule: Cutting measures are only carried out with sharp pruning shears or saws in order to avoid bruising. Cut surfaces that are wider than 2 cm are always fired with a special tree wax or glued tree pavement, so that moisture and disease germs can not penetrate and heal the wound surfaces faster.

Fertilization and soil care

A bark mulch layer displaces weeds and optimizes soil quality.

Rindnemulch

Even on barren ground, most fruit trees can still grow. However, for a good yield, the soil should be prepared in a targeted manner, since there should always be enough nutrients available: Nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium should therefore be introduced into the soil in the right proportions. Often it is already sufficient if organic fertilizer is incorporated into the excavation during planting and the topmost layers of the soil are mulched. A layer of mulch displaces weeds, keeps the moisture in the soil longer and optimizes the overall soil quality as it acts as an organic fertilizer.

Tip: Especially surrounded by grass, approximately in the middle of the lawn, fruit trees suffer quickly from lack of nutrients. If the first signs of symptoms appear, a targeted liquid fertilizer can be applied in the casting process so that even deep-lying soil layers are sufficiently supplied with nutrients.

Targeted chopping or digging is not necessary with the fruit tree. It is better to cover the soil around the trunk with bark mulch, so that moisture is better stored and weeds are displaced.

Video Board: Don't Plant Fruit Trees Until You Watch This - Raintree