Floor construction

Floor construction: insulation

Tasks of the floor
  • flatness
  • load-bearing capacity
  • tightness
  • soundproofing
  • Heat protection or heat source
  • easy to clean surface
  • matching the interior design style

Floor structure

New or old building - the floor structure should fulfill several functions. These include air and impact sound insulation, thermal insulation, stability and underfloor heating. At the same time it should meet individual requirements, such as low installation height, easy-care, durable coverings, long renovation cycles, etc.

It is therefore understandable that there are numerous possibilities for floor structures. In order to find the most suitable solution, it is advisable to take stock of the circumstances, requirements and wishes and the budget in question.

If the ground is to be built as a handyman project, one's own abilities and capacities are another influencing factor that should be considered.

Unprocessed floor - base of the floor construction in the new building

The basis for the floor construction is the raw floor. Even this can be very different, although it often consists of concrete. However, wooden ceilings are also becoming more common as a basis for floor construction since prefabricated houses and wooden houses account for a steadily higher share of the total new construction.

The big advantage of a new building is that it is easy to experience from the start, how the subfloor is constructed and how it is ordered to the statics. Based on this knowledge, the further construction of the floor can contribute to a meaningful completion and take into account or even compensate for any weaknesses.

Floor construction in the old building

In an old building is rarely known how the subsoil is built. Weaknesses, such as poor sound insulation or insufficient insulation, usually reveal themselves quickly. If you want to know more, you can not avoid a small disassembly or test drilling. With the latter, caution is advised so that no pipes (eg heating pipes) are hit.

If the rooms are not too high, the construction height in the old building will play a role. The statics is also to be considered. In particular, for example, in wooden beam ceilings, if in favor of the sound insulation heavy layers or beds are considered.

Note: As a tenant you usually have to do at best with the surface - the surface - and must in any case ask the landlord for serious changes in the type of covering. So if you want to make natural stone tiles or a stone carpet or any other serious change to the floor covering (such as attaching or removing parquet or solid wood planks), you should always seek written permission from the owner.

Floor construction on concrete (ceiling)

If the bottom plate (without basement) is already sufficiently insulated from below in the floor construction, then the insulation is optimally executed, namely always outside the building envelope. More about building a base plate here.

Floor construction: building

An example of a typical floor construction - dimensions and materials vary.

Only if you want to use a screed with underfloor heating in the floor construction, however, a further insulating layer should be installed underneath in order to prevent heat losses in the direction of the concrete slab.

In the case of a floor panel that is not insulated at the bottom, it is essential to apply a barrier layer and an insulation on the top as part of the floor structure.

All other concrete ceilings are floor slabs. On the ground floor, the (thermal) insulation can also be installed on the cellar side under the floor slab. In all other concrete floor slabs, the thermal and acoustic insulation usually takes place in the course of floor construction.

Floor construction: insulation

In this example of the floor construction, a floor heating has come in detail.

Floor construction at a wooden beam ceiling

Floor construction: floor

In the old building, the structure of the floors is often to be explored first.

Wooden ceilings are available in various types both in the old building (widespread until the 1950s) and in modern wooden houses. In the floor structure on a beam ceiling, which remains open down, virtually all functional layers must be incorporated in the floor structure. This is often done in single-family homes, if for the visible wooden beam ceiling a bit more impact sound is accepted.

In all other cases, the wooden ceiling is closed from below (two-shell construction). This ceiling is either springy, cantilevered or suspended on rails and insulated. It is important that there is no solid bond to the beams that would transmit the sound. Overall, a much more efficient impact sound insulation can be achieved.

Example: Such a closed wooden beam ceiling can receive between the beams in each case a push-in ceiling on which a trickle protection and then a heavy bed comes - for example, a dry clay fill, which also serves the heat storage in addition to the sound insulation.

For example, a support layer can be nailed or screwed onto the beams for a leveling compound. On this example, a floating floorboard is laid as a floor covering. At the edges of the wall come insulation strips, which are then covered by baseboards.

There are many possible variations on this example that take individual priorities into account.

Floor construction: building

This could be the construction of a sound-insulated, bivalve wood beam ceiling.

Material for floor construction

  • Underfloor heating set
  • dry screed
  • screed plates
  • Dry fill teaching
  • cork insulation
  • shifting plates
  • Flooring laminate

Author: Christiane Baldwin - Online Editor and Handyman

Photo Credits:
  • Title graphic: Christiane Baldwin
  • Floor structure dry floor Graphic: Christiane Baldwin
  • Floor construction Underfloor heating Graphic: Christiane Baldwin
  • Albaufoto: Pixabay, shadowfirearts
  • Timber beam ceiling Graphic: Christiane Baldwin
  • Post graphic: Christiane Baldwin

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Video Board: Simple Construction is Easy Waterproofing The Floor Using Concrete