House facades: The big overview


The façade facade fulfills several important purposes: the façade construction is not only the most visually important design element of a house, but it also protects the building and the masonry from the effects of the weather, from damage and deterioration of the building fabric and from heat loss through the masonry.

facade species

plaster facade

The most commonly used in our widths is still the plaster facade, which is made of different cleaning materials and in different plaster thicknesses. It is the easiest to produce, depending on the plaster used also different high insulating properties and weather protection, but both are usually better with plate or clinker facades. Depending on the plaster thickness and plaster used, you have to reckon with costs of around 30 euros per square meter for a qualified craftsman.

brick facade

brick facade

brick facade

Clinker facade: tdx / Wienerberger brick industry

Facades made of clinker, above all there have significant advantages in weather protection, where with much driving rain and strong winds at the same time must be expected, in Germany, this is often the case in the north and along the coasts. In other areas, a clinker façade pays off above all by its durability - while plaster facades have to be redeveloped and repainted every 10 years, the clinker façade often remains maintenance-free for 50 years and more. So it pays off, especially in the long run, mostly clearly. Their U-value is usually better than with simple plaster facades. Priced clinker facades are about one third more expensive than plaster facades on the same area.

House facades: The big overview: building

facade panels

facade panels

facade panels

Façade panels: tdx / Haas prefab construction

House facades can also be clad with panels of different materials - either as natural stone facade, with plastic facade panels or PVC panels, also a steel exterior wall cladding is possible. Façade panels allow the best protection of the façade from the effects of the weather, depending on the material used, they are often very durable. Slate cladding is often found even in very old houses, the cladding can remain here even in some cases for two to three hundred years largely intact and only occasionally be repaired. However, attention must always be given to the masonry behind it, especially with regard to the possible ingress of moisture.

Cladding made of wood

wood facade

wood facade

Wooden facade: tdx / Haas prefab

For this weather-resistant and specially treated woods are used, in many cases, wood is also used only for the gable fairing. The use of wood for façade cladding almost always has optical reasons; wood preservatives are almost always inferior in durability and weather protection to modern materials such as plastic panels or clinker. In many houses you can also find a gable covering with wood, while the rest of the house receives a conventional plaster facade. Particularly long-lasting wood panels are created by special woods such as cedar or Douglas fir, which are inherently completely weather-resistant.

VHF facades and curtain walls

These two terms must be separated - a VHF façade, ie a ventilated façade, is a design that leaves open a constructive space between the façade construction and masonry or thermal insulation, and is therefore ventilated. Curtain walls represent their own façade construction standardized in the EN, which consists of elements which are mounted on a skeleton anchored in the masonry. They are practically an additional wall layer whose static weight is derived over the existing masonry. For both the VHF façade and the curtain wall, the price depends primarily on the construction method. Due to the possibility of attaching an additional thermal insulation such house facades often have very good U-values, VHF facades are also often used in the outdoor area of ​​older houses, when it comes to a subsequent insulation, since here due to the moisture problem dense insulation is often not appropriate can.

glass facades

Glass house facades are used almost exclusively in commercial buildings and require a special construction that holds the individual glass plates. In modern designs, the properties of the façade are planned in such a way that a thermal advantage is created in the building, and thus significant costs are saved. However, a glass facade must already be taken into account in the construction of the house. The cost of a glass facade depends entirely on the design.

facade panels

facade panels

tdx / IBU

wood facade

wood facade

tdx / FBB

wood facade

wood facade

tdx / Haas prefab

Wooden facade with gallery

Wooden facade with gallery

tdx / My brick house

Clinker façade with framework

Clinker façade with framework

tdx / Wienerberger brick industry

plaster facade

plaster facade

tdx / Haas prefab

insulation

insulation

insulation

Facade insulation: tdx / Wienerberger brick industry

In Germany, due to statutory regulations, namely the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV), every house must be insulated as well as possible in order to avoid excessively high heat losses through the masonry and thus high heating costs that are harmful to the environment. In many older buildings, but also in new buildings, insulating materials such as styrofoam or special insulation boards are often attached to the house facades. They can either be glued directly to the masonry, or mounted inside a ventilated façade. Very old stone houses may not be insulated on the outside wall because of their physical properties. Improperly applied insulation can lead to subsequent severe moisture damage to the building fabric.

Exterior insulation of the facade - the controversy

While WDVS (thermal insulation composite systems) for building exterior walls are generally banned in the US because of the high risk of moisture and associated, dangerous mold growth, there is also a controversy in this country - especially the actual efficiency of the external insulation in many cases. According to the EnEV, it is regarded as a useful tool, but many experts see it differently depending on the building structure, according to new studies. Before installing an expensive thermal insulation, you should definitely seek comprehensive advice and have an independent profitability calculation carried out. IR pictures alone are only very meaningless.

Innovative ideas of facade design

The facade as a special functional space - many modern ideas for the utilization of the facade for special purposes have emerged in recent years.

Facades of houses for energy production

The most impressive way to use house facades to generate energy is the algae reactor. Behind glass double walled glass walls, green algae are pumped up along the façade, which proliferate when exposed to sunlight, generating valuable biomass that can subsequently be dried and burned. During this process, the algae release heat and generate hydrogen, which can be used in fuel cells. The dried algae can also be used as a heavy metal filter for water and bind above all a lot of CO2 from the atmosphere. First experimental arrangements of buildings are already here.

Another very modern construction, but probably needs a few years of development, are built into the facade wind turbines, but manage without wings and instead works with falling water droplets. In this way, electricity can be generated directly on the facade as long as the wind blows.

facade greening

facade greening

facade greening

Facade greening: tdx / FBB

Facade greenery - especially with ivy or rose tendrils - is a method that has a long tradition and really looks very attractive. The whole thing becomes more interesting when you use Kudzu:
The originally Japanese plant, which has been spreading in North America and Europe for quite some time, is growing an incredible 30 inches per day in reasonably warm locations. The tubers are edible, in Japan, the stems and flowers are consumed, which are also effective against alcohol and nicotine addiction, Kudzu are also made pasta and gelatin. From the stem fibers of the plant can be produced paper and textiles. In addition, Kudzu's high growth rate provides a high volume of fast-growing biomass and very efficient fertilizer - all on the house facade.

Conclusion

The facade is an important building space for a building - the protection of the masonry and the preservation of the building fabric are its main purposes, so that the house facade plays an important role in the preservation of the building. In the future, it could also take on a number of other important functions - such as producing electricity for the household.


Video Board: Great Facades by Fenesta || Pinkish Shah