Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home

Carpet diversity from the Orient

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: oriental

The term "oriental rug" refers to rugs made in the Middle East that are themselves between cultures, in their patterns and representations as well as in the different methods of carpet production differ.

Due to the large variety of rugs, we introduce you in this article in the world of oriental rugs, inform about the centuries-old tradition as well as quality features and purchase criteria.

We also give tips on how to roll out large oriental rugs and how to use them natural household means sparing the expensive carpets clean.

Features of a true oriental rug

The definition of the term can only be said: All carpets made in the Orient are oriental rugs. Experts and carpet connoisseurs can, however, on the basis of The design, the pattern and the material are the origin of a genuine oriental rug determine.

In the countries of origin Persia (Iran), the Turkey, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, as well as in the Central Asian and Caucasian countries The carpet is used for thermal insulation and is therefore usually made of warming sheep's wool.

Each of these Countries of origin have their own traditions in carpet productionthat have undergone development over the centuries.

History of the Oriental carpet

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: flying

Kilim rug

Oriental rugs are ancient, already antique crafts: From the simple braids and flat fabrics that are still in the traditional, Central Asian kilim rugs, Over the centuries, elaborate weaving techniques and ornaments developed.

Flat woven carpets have no pile and are therefore two-dimensional. The first carpets of this kind probably originated 2,500 years ago. The later oriental rugs were made in terms of manufacturing techniques and patterns more and more sophisticated.

The so-called classic period of oriental carpet took place in the 16th and 17th centuries instead of. Here the most magnificent and still most valuable carpets from the Orient developed.

Today, Oriental rugs are either manufactured in factories or industrially. The Price range varies according to the manufacturing cost, the size and the material of the carpet, Complex, large carpets in bright colors are very expensive - but also very robust and colourfast.

Oriental rug: materials and "node density"

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: oriental

Workers in carpet making

Oriental rugs are made of wool, cotton and silk. Not infrequently, all three materials are found in a carpet, sometimes comes also artificial silk. These Materials become carpets on knotting chairs or knotting machines established.

With the node types one differentiates between the Turkish Gördesknoten, the Persian Sennehknoten and the Dschuftiknoten.

The latter is especially at modern rugs use and is significantly cheaper, but of poorer quality.

Node density as a quality index

The node density of an Oriental rug is the most important criterion for the quality and the degree of processing. It is divided into six stages:

  • very coarsely knotted (15,000 - 25,000 knots / m²)
  • roughly knotted (25,000 - 60,000 knots / m²)
  • medium fine knotted (60,000 - 120,000 knots / m²)
  • finely knotted (120,000 - 200,000 knots / m²)
  • very nicely knotted (200,000 - 400,000 knots / m²)
  • rarely finely knotted (over 400,000 knots / m²)

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: rugs

Close-up of carpet knitting

The number of nodes is determined by Counting the knots on the back of the carpet: The number of knots, the fine humps on the back of the Oriental rug, becomes larger 10 mm horizontally and vertically determined and then with 10,000 multiplied. This gives the number of nodes per square meter.

As a guide to the manufacturing effort: One square meter of carpet with 100,000 knots per m² will be in about one At 225,000 knots per square meter, three to five years are to be calculatedn. For top class carpets (from 400,000 knots / m²) it takes up to 10 years for one square meter of finished carpet.

"Radj" and knots

For Persian carpets, which are among the most popular oriental carpets on the market, the density of nodes in radj specified. The conversion of radj on knots is not easy: oneradj has a length of about seven centimeters, one meter corresponds to about 14.29 radj. A rug with 22 knots per radj therefore has 314 knots per meter, since 22 x 14.29 = 314.

The number of knots per m² of a "22 Radj carpet" is calculated as follows:

22 x 22 x (14.29 x 14.29) = 98,376, approximately 100,000 knots per square meter

Production of an Oriental rug

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: home

Carpet tool

The beginning of the work is the dyeing: Wool, silk and cotton for real oriental rugs even with today Dyed natural colors, The warm, unobtrusive color shades are very durable and on top of that homeopathic completely harmless.

However, cheaper carpets are today also dyed with synthetic dyes. Are these from high quality, they stand the natural counterparts in no way. Yet sometimes they miss the warm tone of the original.

All oriental rugs are based on simple, two-dimensional kilims. Become through it Weft and warp threads pulled, knotted and cut with Knüpfmessern become. Then the tissue is tightened with a comb. Through craftsmanship and skillful choice of materials created so the familiar and complex patterns on the carpets.

After knotting the scissors follows: The Flor is different in length after the knotting process and must be with large, flat and hand-forged scissors be brought to the same length. Scissoring will bring out the pattern of the rug, and a regular three-by-four meter rug will be shorn for a full day.

The completion of the manufacturing process is the laundry: In several, precisely elaborated washes loose wool fibers and dirt removed and excess paint rinsed out.

Chemically, many additional washing effects can be achieved today: The Hoccurrence or steaming of individual colors, a powerful Florglanz and a stronger dirt insensitivity can be achieved by experienced scrubbers consuming.

Oriental rugs: patterns and styles

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: rugs

Iranian picture carpet with a nature scene

Have oriental rugsn unchanged for centuries, specific features that are based on the country of origin and even allow the manufactory to draw conclusions.

Of particular importance is the patterning of the midfield. Here is roughly in fdivided into five different patterns:

  • Medallion Design: The main motif is in the middle of the rug and is repeated through small "medallions" in the corners of the midfield.
  • Field screening: The center is divided into rectangular or square geometric shapes.
  • Rapport Design: The motifs in the midfield are quite small and repeat themselves in the entire midfield to the edge.
  • Tapestry: The interior carpet is designed in pictorial form; Subtypes are garden, hunting, plant, animal and vase carpets.
  • Prayer rug: Here is a prayer niche, too mihrab called, inserted in the infield.

The overall design of an Oriental rug can also be roughly in the geometric, floral and figurative style divide. In geometric style, all shapes are on the carpet angular and linear, the floral style allows for curved lines and is imaginative patterned.

Leave the figurative carpets recognize concrete representations or scenes - In the Islamic Sunni, these are frowned upon.

Countries of origin and production sites

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: carpet

Persian carpets are among the best-known oriental rugs

Classic oriental rugs from the Late Middle Ages manufactured until the beginning of the 20th century come from four courtly manufactories that no longer exist today:

  1. Ottomans from Anatolia, today's Turkey (1281-1924)
  2. Mamelukes from Egypt (1250-1517)
  3. Safavid from Persia, today's Iran (1501-1722)
  4. Mughal Empire in India (1526-1858)

Ottoman rugs are mostly with refined, big and small patterned geometric medallions. These carpets are also called Holbein carpets because they are best seen on paintings by Hans Holbein the Younger from the 16th century.

Another variant is the so-called Lotto rugs, named after the Italian painter Lorenzo Lotto. These originate from the same time of origin, characteristic here are the Grids of geometric arabesques.

Mameluk rugs are very rare and with the finest and filigree patterns characterized. Their color spectrum is very economical, an essential feature is the lack of contrast between the midfield patterns and the border. They were mainly made in Cairo, other weaving places are Damascus, Mosul and Baghdad.

Safavidian rugs, better known as Persian rugs, are for many the epitome of oriental rug - not without reason. So reached the Persian carpet weaving around the year 1600 a manufacturing quality, which reached up to one million knots per square meter.

These carpets were made Silk were made and were, also by interwoven gold and silver threads, sheer priceless. Persian carpets increasingly came to Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. There they were given to royal and royal houses as a gift. The Kings of England, Poland and especially France (Louis XIV.) Were enthusiastic "fans" of Persian carpet art.

Indian mogul rugs originated until the end of the Islamic period of India about 150 years ago. Out The 16th and 17th centuries are carpets based on Persian models oriented and in terms of quality need not fear comparison.

Later, the patterns were floral, often the patterns were arranged asymmetrically. Outstanding was the performance of Indian dyers who produce rich and powerful tones could. The finest and most beautiful Mughal rugs, unlike the Persian version, are made of cashmere, not silk.

Other regions and provenances

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: oriental

Armenian Dragon Carpet, late 19th century

Outside the four classic regions have been and will be Oriental rugs also in Central Asia as well as in the countries of the former southern Soviet Union manufactured.

Particularly noteworthy here is the Caucasus region, from which the so-called dragon carpets and flower carpets originate. The former are, by name, ornamented with ornamental dragons. The Flower carpets show magnificent floral patterns and pictorial representations of great detail and color richness.

Unfortunately, the provenance (origin) of the carpets can no longer be clearly assigned regionally, as a regional generic term, the southern Caucasus region with the Countries Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Armenia and Uzbekistan be valid.

Also in eastern Anatolia and in the Northeastern Persia carpets of this type are madet; to the east, the area of ​​origin reaches into today's western China.

Afghanistan is still an important country of oriental carpet production today. For carpets from the The area of ​​today's Afghanistan is the distinction in Turkmenfrom the northern regions and Afghans from the rest of the country.

Mostly Red to reddish-brown, they are mostly made of sheep or camel wool manufactured. In the middle of the carpet is the typical göl, a pattern that differs greatly depending on knotter and region.

Another tradition is the weaving of stories and symbols into the carpets. Since the beginning of the war with the former Soviet Union in 1979 and the continuing war in the country, one encounters Markets and in residential houses so-called war rugs (was rugs).

On them are modern War machine such as helicopters, grenades and Kalashnikovs the dominant motiveThey are considered "woven propaganda" of the Afghan resistance. Since September 11, 2001, there are also carpets depicting the attacks on the World Trade Center.

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: flying

Gabbeh rug

Oriental rugs for the market in the western world are today hmainly in Turkey, Iran, India and Pakistan manufactured. On the one hand, there is the market for classic receditions of famous rugs and styles, on the other hand, innovations are also sought in the market segment of oriental rug.

For today's taste knotted rugs are mostly in Red, blue or beige, greenthough color of Islam, is rare. In northern Iran, floral rugs are made, overflowing with flowers and tendrils.

In southern Iran, the popular until the 1980s MeCarpets, which were the most popular German carpet with their small palmettes in rapport. Since 1980 has the Bijar taken this role, he is patterned, easy to maintain and is in the rough variant as well Sehna designated.

Since the Carpets with baroque, lush oriental patterns and high pile are rather unpopular in the 1990s, the trend is also in the carpet art to more objectivity. This is justified, among other things, with the trend towards bright pine furniture; corresponding carpets are also mocking than educators carpets designated.

Increasing popularity enjoys the Gabbeh from southern Iran: Most likely plain or with clear geometric patterns he is today in many living rooms to be found. Although he does not look like that, he is an oriental rug.

Buy oriental rugs - but right

In addition to the already mentioned seals against child labor, a good carpet is characterized by the following factors:

  • Is the pattern even and through-dyed?
  • Is the rug already linting in the shop?
  • Does the carpet smell musty, are moldy spots visible?
  • Does the material match the description?
  • Is the price reasonable?

Especially with expensive and antique carpets an expert should be consulted, because for laymen the value of a carpet is difficult to determine. The right carpets bought at the right time can also serve as a passable investment; beyond the stock market and currency crises, they generate a decent return after years of family ownership.

Lay out the oriental rug

Like other rugs with pile you should also have one Lay oriental rug with the pile direction away from the lightbecause intense sunlight can fade the colors. For large and heavy furniture, the weight should be evenly distributed.

Is it mainly on a few points, such as sofa feet, it expresses that Furniture over time in the carpet and forms permanent indentationsthat are difficult to repair.

Carpet fix against slipping

An Oriental rug is usually rolled out and smoothed out. Especially smaller specimens and so-called carpet runners can - depending on the surface - slip away quickly or move over time. This disturbing carpet shift involves tripping hazards and injury risks.

Remedy special carpet slips or adhesive netsthat you put under the oriental rug. It is important to remember that these mats or nets will not damage the bottom of the carpet or the floor.

Household Tips: Clean Oriental Carpet

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: rugs

carpet beater

For cleaning put the Oriental rug in the traditional way over a carpet bar or - on a small, lightly laid out item - over a taut, stable clothesline.

With the Classic carpet beaters are dust, lint and soiling knocked out of the textiles. In addition, certain carpets can be vacuumed with the vacuum cleaner to a low suction level.

Oriental rugs: A flying carpet for the home: carpet

vacuum cleaner

When fresh snow falls in the winter garden, there is a good opportunity to clean the carpet without detergent. Here lPut the front of the carpet in the snow and tap the carpet with the knocker on the back.

So he is pushed into the snow and the wet snowflakes penetrate into the material. The one in them The oxygen contained dissolves dirt and cleanses the natural wise the oriental carpet. Then lift up the carpet, remove the snow and let dry in the house.

An alternative to snow is Sauerkraut from the tin. The more Acid has the weed, the better the result, Drain the liquid and spread the sauerkraut over the front of the rug.

For example, use a scrubber and let it dry. Then the carpet can be thoroughly vacuumed. The Acid of the herb cleanses it and refreshes its colors auf.- Caution, please use this tip only if the Vacuum carpet thoroughly leaves. Prior to an inconspicuous place, test the effect of the sauerkraut.

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