Detect and avoid toadstools

There are many types of fungi that can be tolerated, but only a small part can be really dangerous - experts differentiate between indigestible and toxic. There are about ten varieties that you should know and should avoid if you are looking for edible mushrooms outdoors. However, symptoms of intoxication are not always evident immediately after consumption: some fungi contain mutagenic substances, which in the long run lead to genetic damage. Genetic predispositions can also turn a fungus into a dangerous food, although other people tolerate the fungus without any problem - such mushrooms have been removed from the list of edible mushrooms. In addition, some mushrooms are only raw inedible. Below, we will introduce you to dangerous toadstools and explain how to deal with a fungus poisoning.


Contents: Toadstools

  • Toadstool or edible mushroom - which mushroom myth is true?
  • Collect Mushrooms - 5 Tips To Avoid Toadstools
  • Green tuber mushroom (Amanita phalloides) - deadly poisonous
  • Panther mushroom (Amanita pantherina) - poisonous
  • Toadstool (Amanita muscaria) - slightly poisonous
  • Attention when eating raw mushrooms
  • Mushroom poisoning - and now?
  • Reading tip: Poisonous plants in the garden

Toadstool or edible mushroom - which mushroom myth is true?

Even if most of the mushroom poisonings are over after 24 hours without any complaints: the consumption of some toadstools can have fatal consequences! It is therefore vital for mushroom pickers to recognize the subtle differences in order to avoid serious poisoning. In general, if mushroom picking is unsure which variety it is, the fungus will be better off.

If you want to be sure, you can take a copy with you and have it determined by an expert. For fungal determination, a small part of the subterranean mycelium will always be excavated to facilitate the assignment. Then press the floor again and close the hole so that the remaining mycelium is not damaged.

Myths about the toadstool

The Broad-leaved Rübling inhabits rotten hardwood and is poisonous.


In the context of poisonous mushrooms, there are numerous stories that should allow a clear assignment. Many people believe that silver spoon tarnish when in contact with poisonous mushrooms. This phenomenon can also occur in non-toxic fungi and is therefore not a clear indication of the toxicity or toxicity of the processed fungus. Many animals, especially nudibranchs, feed on fungi that are deadly poisonous to humans, so too feeding scars or animals on the fungus do not allow clear exclusion.

Even taste is not a hint of edibility: even highly toxic tuberous mushrooms should taste pleasantly mushy, although the smallest amounts already lead to liver failure. Likewise, prolonged cooking does not make poisonous mushrooms digestible, as the deadly poison amanitin, for example, is not soluble in water and is also heat-resistant. In fact, many edible mushrooms are raw inedible and should be fried or steamed. An exception are breeding mushrooms and truffles.

Collect Mushrooms - 5 Tips To Avoid Toadstools

Mushroom and panther mushroom in direct comparison.


When mushroom picking only known varieties take.


For the distinction of poisonous and edible mushrooms there are no universal recognition characteristics. Therefore, limit the mushroom picking to species that you can clearly identify and define as non-toxic. Often it comes down to small optical aberrations or structural changes that are quickly overlooked or even not noticed by many laypeople, such as the non-toxic meadow mushroom and the highly poisonous tuberous mushroom or the tasty Perlpilz and the deadly poisonous Pantherpilz. Mushroom picking therefore means the first important moth: Keep your eyes open - details are crucial! Even with mushrooms, ignorance and inattention do not protect against damage - here often threaten severe poisoning or even death.

The following tips should help with mushroom picking:

  1. Only mushrooms are collected and consumed, which are clearly recognized. Therefore, the second motto is: Insecurities - keep away! The risk is too high and the risk too big!
  2. In addition, only collect young fungi that are not infected by pests or have atypical spots.
  3. Avoid mushrooms whose stem, ring, tuber and lamellae are white or which have a reddish stem or red tubes on the hat base.
  4. Carefully turn the mushroom out of the soil so that the mycelium is not destroyed, and transport it in an air-permeable basket - do not use plastic bags or bags.
  5. Clean mushrooms on the same day and consume them no later than the following day. In the meantime, they are stored dry, cool and open. If you keep an unprocessed mushroom, you can take it as a specimen copy to the hospital in case of emergency.

Green tuber mushroom (Amanita phalloides) - deadly poisonous

The green tuberous mushroom is highly poisonous.


The most poisonous known fungus is the green tuber-tree mushroom (Amanita phalloides), also called green venom-amanita. He is responsible for over 90% of the mushroom poisoning with Todesvolge and every mushroom picker should know him and avoid as far as possible. Its fruiting body contains amatoxins and phallotoxins, which can cause liver failure even when consumed in small quantities. For example, 35 grams of fresh mushroom in a 70 kg person already cause death due to liver failure.

Treacherous is that the first poisoning symptoms, such as vomiting diarrhea, only about 8 to 12 hours after consumption occur - too late, therefore, to prevent by pumping out the stomach worse. In rare cases, however, the first signs of poisoning can become apparent after only two or 36 hours. Thereafter, the symptoms initially fade to abruptly return after about five days of complete liver failure.

The only possible rescue in the late stage of poisoning is a liver transplant. The irony is that the fungus also contains the antidote Antanamide, but in too low a concentration to balance the poison. Until a hundred years ago, almost every poisoning was fatal. Modern screening and intensive care therapies have reduced death rates to around 15% by the beginning of the 21st century.

Panther mushroom (Amanita pantherina) - poisonous

The panther fungus triggers convulsions, nausea and confusion. High doses are deadly.

Toadstool: panther mushroom

Also the Pantherpilz belongs to the Wurstlingsverwandten and exhibits typical characteristics: its brown hat is occupied with white flakes and its ringed, white handle ends in a thickened tuber. After rain showers, the white flakes can be washed off so that older specimens have less stains. Particularly problematic is the likelihood of confusion, as the highly poisonous Pantherpilz the pearl mushroom, which is prized as edible mushroom, looks similar confusingly similar and both mushrooms thrive in different forest forms - eyes on mushroom picking!

The Panther fungus contains toxic ibotenic acid, which is converted into muscimol during drying or other processing methods, which is less toxic but nevertheless very effective. The deadly amount of poison is contained in around 100 grams of fresh mushroom, so that the mortality rate is very low at around 2%. Nevertheless, the consumption of small amounts should also be avoided.

If Pantherpilz is consumed, after one to two hours first signs of intoxication occur: The pupils dilate and it comes to nausea and vomiting. After all, the consumer is in a state of intoxication accompanied by confusion and strong convulsions. If many mushrooms have been consumed, a coma or respiratory paralysis may occur. In the hospital, the stomach is immediately pumped out, laxatives administered and activated charcoal used to bind the toxins.

Toadstool (Amanita muscaria) - slightly poisonous

Toadstools are poisonous but not lethally poisonous.


Also among the most poisonous mushrooms and, like the Knollenblätterpilz, to the family of the butterflies relatives of the toadstool counts. In contrast to its green relative, it is only comparatively weakly toxic, but not harmless: it can cause symptoms of intoxication, but consumption is not fatal. It comes in various varieties, the best known of which has a red hat with white spots. But there are also toadstools without stains, or with orange-yellow hat and yellow spots.

The main active ingredient of the fly agaric is ibotenic acid, a substance that is only mildly toxic and ineffective on its own. Only by further processing, such as drying or eating the mushroom, does the active ingredient disintegrate into muscimol, which in turn is five to six times more toxic and can eventually cause toadstool poisoning. The first symptoms occur 30 minutes to 3 hours after consumption and are often similar to an alcoholic intoxication, which is why the fly agaric also found use in some cultures as a intoxicant. It shows confusion, speech disorders, disturbances of sense of time, motor restlessness, fatigue and various moods of indifference and depression about anxiety to happiness. There are also reports of hallucinations, muscle cramps and tremors.

After about 10 to 15 hours, the state of intoxication ends with deep sleep. Afterwards, most patients are reasonably well-rested and often can not remember the poisoning. In rare cases, temporary sequelae, such as lack of interest and memory weakness, are left behind.

Attention when eating raw mushrooms

Clean mushrooms well before further processing.

fungus preparation

Not only toadstools can cause discomfort, many edible mushrooms are raw inedible. Only a few cultivated mushrooms are suitable for raw consumption, such as mushrooms, shiitake, herbal nests or oyster mushroom. But even these mushrooms should only be eaten raw in moderation, as they can cause indigestion and intolerance.

Tip: Always eat fresh, undamaged mushrooms that are well-cleaned. Here it helps to rub off with a cloth or the use of a special mushroom brush. For mushrooms, the skin should be peeled off with a sharp knife to promote digestibility.

Wild mushrooms, z. As chanterelles, perl mushrooms, chestnut pipes or the hamburger, are generally processed and never eaten raw: on the one hand it comes to gastrointestinal discomfort, and on the other hand, parasites, such as the fox tapeworm, are transmitted to humans. Cook these mushrooms well in a pan to avoid health risks. If mushrooms are cooked, the cooking water is disposed of afterwards.

Mushroom poisoning - and now?

The problem with a mushroom poisoning is the past time until first symptoms show up: in some humans the symptoms of poisoning show already after 30 minutes, while other humans complain about complaints only after four days. The seasoned mushroom variety also influences the latency period. If you notice fungal poisoning, you need to react quickly to get the treatment right.

The orange-veiled veil contains orellanine, which causes severe poisoning after a few hours.


In general, if poisonous mushrooms are consumed, deadly poisoning is possible but comparatively rare. For about 90% of deaths, the tuber-fungus is responsible. typical Symptoms of a fungus poisoning are:

  • sweats
  • Stomach and abdominal pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dizziness and balance disorders
  • Cardiovascular disorders
  • blurred vision
  • miosis
  • Tears and salivation
  • Drop in blood pressure

It is important that you keep calm and do not panic or rush. Even if you do not drive a car in a poisoning, call in this case an ambulance. If you are the person accompanying you, you should bring the patient to the doctor as soon as possible. At the hospital, symptomatic treatment is required for mild poisoning. In severe poisoning, the stomach is pumped out and activated charcoal and laxative given to remove the fungal toxin as quickly as possible from the body.

If these symptoms occur after eating mushrooms, the following will help First aid measures in case of fungus poisoning:

  • Go to a hospital immediately. In severe cases, an emergency doctor should be alerted.
  • Without a medical order, it does not make sense to induce vomiting.
  • Do not eat or drink without medical advice, especially no alcohol and no milk.
  • If possible, fungal remnants (such as from the plate or remnants of the brush) should be taken to the hospital to facilitate a diagnosis.


Reading tip: Poisonous plants in the garden

The most poisonous plants often have the most beautiful flowers or are absolutely inconspicuous - here too, one can not orientate oneself to the outward appearance. Many ornamental plants are poisonous and do not belong in a garden where animals and children are. Already skin contact can cause poisoning. Toxic plants in the house and garden

Video Board: This Mushroom Starts Killing You Before You Even Realize It | Deep Look