Build pond filter yourself - instructions


Build pond filter yourself - instructions: yourself

needed tools
  • Drill with drill bit
  • screwdriver
  • Shovel and earth tamper
  • Saw and drill for veneering
  • brush glaze

If you have a pond, you usually have problems with soiling and algae. Especially when fish live in the pond. Unfortunately, the commercial filters are often inadequate for your size and performance. Therefore, they usually require very short cleaning intervals.

It is not a big problem to build a powerful pond filter yourself, which has a sufficient size and therefore needs to be cleaned less frequently. Above all, this benefits the balance of the organisms in the filter.

The size of the filter depends on several factors. On the one hand, the volume of water is a factor to consider, on the other hand, the use, location and type of pond system.

When is a pond filter needed?

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: instructions

A natural pond with plant filter and without fish does not need an additional filter.

For a natural garden pond without fish, no filter is needed in most cases. Too sunny a location or a lot of foliage can at times lead to unfavorable water levels and / or increased algae formation.

You can do this with a plant filter, ie a suitable planting, for example, in a filter trench. This solution is particularly suitable for swimming ponds.

However, if the water is not clear enough yet, you can not avoid a technical pond filter. In fish ponds, such a filter is almost always mandatory.

Due to the fish food and the excretions of the fish, the content of phosphates and ammonium will soon become much too high and even life-threatening for the fish.

How big must the filter be?

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: instructions

The size is only one of many criteria for the correct filter volume.

When purchasing commercially available pond filters, the volume of the pond is usually given in the name as a parameter. However, this does not take into account any fish stocking.

There is a general rule of thumb that says 10% of the pond volume should make up the volume of the filter system. With this rough formula, enough security is built in for the vast majority of cases.

With a self-made pond filter, the size can be adapted very well to the actual requirements. So, if you take it more accurately, size means less the size of the container (s) than the entire surface of the filter material that bacteria can colonize to convert phosphates and ammonium. The specific surface area is indicated on most filter materials or obtained from the manufacturer.

Example Calculation:

They have a koi pond with about 20,000 liters and about 10 kilograms of fish in it. At the maximum, you feed 5% of the weight of your koi, ie 500 g of fish food.

For each 100 g of fish feed, approx. 4 g of ammonia (ammonium) are produced, for a total of 20 g.

Each 1 g of ammonia requires 4 square meters of filter surface, ie at least 80 square meters.

For safety's sake, double this number and therefore use at least 160 square meters of filter material surface.

For example, a medium-sized foam has a surface area of ​​450 square meters per cubic meter.

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: filter

Big fish like kois bring a lot of ammonia into the pond via the food and their metabolism.

Since they use different filter materials from coarse to very fine material, you can get by in the case described in any case with a large rain barrel as a container. For the 10% rule of thumb, it would be two IBC containers.

However, all these calculations are rather crude and not tailored to the individual case. Also, the amount of fish here for the sake of simplicity is very low and is equivalent to only about 10 half-grown koi. Only expert advice can provide certainty in individual cases.

It is certain that a filter system that is too large will not hurt, in contrast to systems that are too small.

In any case, they should plan the growth of fish - be it through growth or multiplication - from the beginning generously.

Pond filter construction manual

Material requirements:
  • Containers (rain barrels or IBC containers)
  • Flexible pipes (pond hose), hose clamps, hose nozzle and clamp connectors
  • Filter media (filter brushes, helix, filter foam coarse, medium, fine)
  • UVC light filter

Single or multi-stage filter?

Depending on the required volume, the filter can be built in one container or in several containers in series. The individual containers are always the same in construction, only the filter materials change.

Construction Manual Pond Filter - a principle for all sizes

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: pond

The principle of a filter becomes clear in this example. The water arrives at the bottom of the tank and then rises through various filter materials up to the overflow.

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: yourself

Filter brushes too coarse filtration

Such a filter is easy to build. Holes are drilled in the containers at the top with a drill bit of the appropriate size. The material from the list of materials is 32 mm. The first hole is placed just below the edge. The second opposite but about 5 cm deeper.

At the higher opening, the hose is connected to the incoming water. Inside a piece of pond pipe (pond hose) attached. It should be so long that it ends centered by the filter material about 10 cm above the ground.

The lower opening opposite allows the overflow to the next tank (in a multi-tank filter) or acts as a return to the pond. Here is only connected to the outside.

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: pond

Helix - filters out coarse dirt

To connect the pond hose, a clamp connector is attached to the water-introducing side, which gets a hose nozzle eingeschaubt on the inside. On this, the pond hose required in the container is attached with a hose clamp.

The pond hose suspended in the container is fixed with the filter materials so that it remains at the bottom approximately in the middle of the container. The dirty water arrives at the bottom and is filtered during the upgrade. One part settles at the bottom of the container.

At the bottom, first coarse material (eg filter brushes) is filled, then some finer material (such as sacks of helix), then coarse, medium and fine foam (filter mats).

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: build

In a multi-stage filter, the layers are distributed to several containers, but also the inner life is built from coarse to fine filter material. The different heights allow good flow.

If you build a multi-stage filter, then distribute the filter materials from coarse to fine on the various containers. Place the containers on a slight slope (for example, the first container at the highest point, every ten centimeters lower).

Around the pond filter system

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: instructions

Obviously no fishpond, that would have to have open water even in winter.

It is often worthwhile to place a UVC filter between the water-bearing pipe, so that, for example, thread algae are effectively combated.

The sales of the pond pump should not be too low, but also not too high, because the bacteria also take some time to convert the ammonia.

The filtered water is returned to the pond in such a way that it exits at least 15 cm above the water surface, thus contributing to the oxygen supply.

Stones are a popular solution for camouflage.

tip: Filter systems are not necessarily visually appealing. Therefore, you should think in advance how and where they hide this best without needing long pipe connections. Whether it is a small garden shed or just a screen element, it is up to the circumstances and the personal taste.

Frequently asked questions

Build pond filter yourself - which filter material?

The question of the right filter material is a science in itself. We were only able to give an example of a functional, usual construction of filter material here. On the Internet and especially with expert advisers, you can learn a lot more about this topic. Especially for special requirements.

Pond filters build themselves from rain barrels?

Rain barrels are relatively cheap and the material is intended for outdoor use and irrigation. Two distinct advantages. There are rain barrels of various sizes and shapes (round, square, etc.) as well as proper connection material to connect, etc. Therefore, in many cases, they are a great option.

Pond filters build yourself for Kois?

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: pond

Who plans a koi pond, needs a powerful filter system, because these fish are or will be large, have a not inconsiderable feed conversion and cause a corresponding ammonia load.

Since ammonia is at the same time critically hazardous to fishes in a relatively low concentration, a very effective filter must definitely be used in a fishpond, which reliably reduces the heavy load even in midsummer.

For this reason self-made pond filters are a very good way to achieve enough performance and long cleaning intervals for comparatively little money.

Pond filters themselves build pictures?

There are numerous pictures and instructions on the internet. However, the principle for a flow filter is roughly the same. Of course there are some minor modifications, as well as many different filter materials.

Our instructions here aim to get you to know the principle and then plan your own, individually fitting implementation yourself. The links in the list of materials show products that are usually used for this purpose. The structure is easy to handle even for less passionate DIY enthusiasts.

Pond filters themselves build IBC containers?

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: yourself

For very large fish ponds, IBC containers are not a bad choice, but they should be cut open at the top. The filter process or the bacteria need a lot of oxygen. The cut-out part can be placed like a lid if you stick a seal on the cut edge. The container is best then covered with, for example, a UV protective film.

Keep in mind, however, that handling such a large container is not always practical. You may be better off with a multi-stage filter from some rain barrels, if such a filter system also occupies much more space.

Pond filters themselves build a small pond?

For a small, well-planted pond without fish stocking no filter is required. Also, if you have found some moderlieschen in your little pond, there is not necessarily the need to build a filter.

With a stocking with goldfish, high entry of organic material u. It may nevertheless be necessary. But then you come out with a much smaller system. For example, a covered mortar trough constructed, filled and connected according to the same principle as described above in the manual.

Pond filters themselves build gravel?

Build pond filter yourself - instructions: yourself

In the past, gravel was often used as a filter material. However, the overall surface of gravel can not compete with modern filter materials. In addition, gravel is heavy and not easy to clean.

On the other hand, gravel is a natural material and does not contribute to the ubiquitous plastic load. So if you have enough space, power and muse, you can also get filter gravel as an alternative to helix, for example. However, please make sure that the gravel does not pollute the hardness of the water with lime release or the quality due to contamination with heavy metals.

Author: Christiane Baldwin - Online Editor and Handyman

Photo Credits:
  • Cover Picture: Pixabay, LENA15, CC0 Public Domain
  • near-natural pond: Pixabay, MariaGodfrida, CC0 Public Domain
  • Water Lilies Pond: Pixabay, rgerber, CC0 Public Domain
  • Kois: Pixabay, Free Photos, CC0 Public Domain
  • Graphic Single-Stage Filter: Christiane Baldwin, Online Editor
  • Filterbuersten: amazon, Wagner Green
  • Helix: amazon, hel-x
  • Graphic Multilevel Filter: Christiane Baldwin, Online Editor
  • Winter Pond: Pixabay, gellinger, CC0 Public Domain
  • Red Lying Pond: Pixabay, Emiliox, CC0 Public Domain
  • Frog: Pixabay, Heidelbergerin, CC0 Public Domain
  • Post photo: Pixabay, emiliox, CC0 Public Domain

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Video Board: How To Build A D.I.Y Pond Filter Step By Step