# Radiation protection and sound insulation - Protective measures against sound and radiation

Sound and rays: they are everywhere and invisible. Especially for sensitive people can Harassment by sound or Strain from rays strongly influence life. How we shield our apartments and houses with suitable measures and thereby protect ourselves, read here.

Sound is measured in decibels ("dB"), a measure of the sensitivity of the human ear:

A jackhammer hammers with hardly bearable 120 dB, a truck brings it to 90 dB. Animated conversation at a party penetrates with 60 to 70 dB in the ears, from a quiet residential street around 50 dB go out.

It is really quiet from 30 dB (forest noise). So it should be in the bedroom or in the reading room, in the living room and kitchen it may be louder.

### Definition: What is sound?

The sound insulation on the outside must be adapted to the respective load

The sound reduction index "R" is expressed in decibels, it stands for the reduction of the volume by a certain component. When measured in the laboratory, one can judge a particular component and only this one according to its insulation quality. Then it's called "Rw P".

In real life, d. H. in the building itself after completion of the work, "Rw B" is determined, the insulation value including all transmission paths.

With "Rw", the expert can use complicated formulas to calculate how the combination of components will affect the acoustics. This goes until the complete simulation of the building acoustics on the computer, the so-called auralization.

### Noise control measures for defects in sound insulation

It is not easy to get over the noise. He comes from the outside, from above and from below. He takes the direct route or, strangely enough, sneak paths - and he knows them all. Fortunately, you can trick him with structural measures even later a bit.

If we do not press our ear against the wall to the neighbors, then usually only the airborne sound reaches us. But stupidly, from structure-borne noise can become airborne sound and vice versa: So loud music makes the air vibrate so much that the surrounding walls are stimulated to vibrate, which manifests itself in the form of a disturbance to the neighbors.

By the word "impact sound" is meant the structure-borne sound, which is caused by walking or stools on the ground. However, it develops in the room underneath to airborne noise and thus leads to an unpleasant noise.

The building acoustician knows no noise, but only sound and catalogs it according to the type of transmission: "airborne sound" is transmitted through the air, "structure-borne sound" about solid objects.

### Typical defects in noise protection

Unfortunately, especially older buildings have certain weak points depending on the design. They have poorly insulated water and sanitary pipes whose gargles rob sleep, or creaking wooden ceilings and floors that are more suitable as soundboards.

But also leaking work on interior and exterior walls make it easy for the airborne sound to spread unhindered: For example, single-pane windows allow heat to escape on one side and unwanted noise on the other.

But also subsequently retracted intermediate walls are sometimes too thin, since there may not have been a drywall at the time of origin.

Subsequent soundproofing

The aim of the countermeasures must be to block transmission paths. That is, the loopholes for the airborne sound must be sealed by stuffing the cavities to the different components. This allows you to convert the sound energy into heat energy while absorbing the noise.

Bending soft or bending stiff?

Even massive walls, ceilings and floors are somewhat flexible and depending on the degree of flexibility the skilled person speaks of "flexible" or "rigid". Depending on the material and construction, they are therefore vibrated by airborne noise in certain frequency ranges - d. H. they answer the sound source, which suffers from the Schalldämmvermögen.

If possible, your "resonance frequency" should not be between 100 and 2000 hertz (vibrations per second) because humans are particularly sensitive to these frequencies. Below this critical range they are "sufficiently rigid", above "sufficiently pliable". Soundproofing in lightweight construction is achieved with flexible constructions made of panels and fibrous insulating materials.

### Soundproofing and soundproofing with a suspended ceiling

After laying insulation on the floor, the second best option is a suspended ceiling. Their sound-absorbing effect is based on the one hand on the so-called "flexible" planking, z. B. with plasterboard, and on the other on the insulation of the ceiling cavity with a building acoustically good insulation material such as glass wool.

Very useful in ceiling construction are the so-called vernier hangers, as they allow a precise height adjustment and make the Grundlattung superfluous.

Starting from the middle of the ceiling, mark the attachment points and the course of the battens. This should be planned in such a way that the joints of the gypsum plaster boards lie on the battens, maximum distance between battens: 50 cm.

It is important that the slab does not touch the surrounding walls. On the other hand, the insulation panels were to be pushed close together and raised up to several centimeters on the walls. The gypsum tile ceiling can then be wallpapered and / or painted without problems after painting with a deep foundation.

Photos: Saint Gobain Isover G + H

1. precast floor

2. Screed insulation boards made of mineral wool

3. Chipboard

4. Insulation from mineral wool plates

5. Plasterboard

6. Wooden beams

### Measures for sound insulation on the ground

Noise from above is best counteracted with a floating screed on the upper floor. Because the sound is best to fight where it arises. In existing multi-family houses, however, this is hardly feasible.

Sound is transmitted over the floor, which can often lead to great annoyance, especially in poorly insulated apartment buildings. The party, living under an apartment with smaller children, feel disturbed by the lively patter - for the family with children, the whine is a nuisance.

The impact sound can not be completely avoided, but at least reduced. Often the laying of a thick carpet with a further insulating layer of felt, cork, foam films, softboard or even with rubber granules (known from playgrounds as these dark red soft tiles) often helps. The insulation materials are fixed according to manufacturer's instructions on the subfloor, the carpet is then laid with carpet adhesive.

Unfortunately, the floor has sound insulation through carpet, especially in old buildings their limits, as residual impact sound from above continues to be delivered to the walls and the entire masonry.

An improvement without having to intervene in the building itself can best be achieved by floating screed, however, no matter whether wet or dry, no firm connection to the raw ceiling or the walls may have, as by such compounds (sound bridges) the sound continues almost is carried on unchecked.

For wooden floors, you can fill the existing gaps with mud bricks, expanded clay or pearlite fillings to prevent the propagation of unwanted sound.

The height of the floor can change due to the carpet and the additional sound insulation that may be installed - consider this with doors that open in carpet direction.

### Sound insulation by insulation of walls, windows and doors

The so-called decoupling between floor, wall and ceiling is particularly important in the fight against the sound. It can be achieved with so-called insulating strips on the walls. These stripes prevent the dreaded flank transmission, which would spread the sound across the various components.

For staircases, the case is similar: Stairs are sound sources and should be acoustically decoupled from the rest of the construction with insulation strips.

Sound insulation with the right insulation materials

An interesting aspect is the acoustic properties of the insulating material. Sound insulation is particularly important between semi-detached houses and residential floors. With the right insulation material, the soundproofing of massive exterior or interior walls can be noticeably improved.

Fibrous, porous materials such as soft wood fiber, mineral wool, cellulose are ideally suited for this purpose. Closed-cell insulation materials, eg. As polystyrene, the sound insulation of a construction may even deteriorate.

Making thin walls soundproof (drywall)

In front of a too thin solid wall in the old building a Vorschale in the dry construction method can be set. This is usually done by plasterboard, aluminum or wood profiles.

If, for static reasons, the drywall method was chosen for the new room layout, the cavities must be completely filled with insulating material such as sound-absorbing mineral or wood wool.

Pipes in the walls

Sanitary pipes should be exposed and re-sheathed in existing noise pollution on the one hand, on the other hand, these pipes must be checked for their attachment in the wall and repaired if necessary. Modern fixings are made elastic and thereby swallow the resulting sound.

Soundproof doors and windows

Many old doors and windows are not a significant barrier to sound waves. Some also do not close properly between Gensterblatt or door leaf and frame. In this case, the noise can penetrate the direct airway. Windows and doors offer the greatest success in soundproofing measures with minimum effort and at the same time increase the thermal insulation of the building.

Modern windows with discs of different thickness and therefore different vibration behavior are good sound stopper. Modern sealing tapes or sealing profiles also obstruct the airway and prevent "short circuits" of structure-borne noise. Windows are available in six different sound insulation classes.

Soundproof doors are either heavy and solid or their cavities are filled with insulating material.

1 For slumberland: Special discs for soundproofing, with insulation values ​​up to 54 dB. (Photo: Climalit)

2 Passive house-compatible window: Three panes, cavity insulation and all-round sealing profiles also ensure optimal sound insulation. (Graphic: Profine GmbH / Kömmerling Kunststoffe)

3 Light and noise protection for quiet sleep: skylight with integrated roller shutters. (Photo: Velux)

### Apply for funding

Before starting work, contact the Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau. Their housing modernization program promotes appropriate measures with low-interest loans.

Kreditanstalt für WiederaufbauTel.: 01801/33 55 77Fax: 069/74 31 - 42 14Internet: //kfw.de

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