The construction of windows

Until well into the second half of the 20th century, single glazing was massively used. The windows were correspondingly simple. Since the 1970s and 80s, insulating glazing was able to prevail more and more. As a rule, they are characterized by several glass panes in succession. But not only the glass layers became more, also the structure of windows in the wing is today much more complex. For many do-it-yourself works, but also for buying new windows, this knowledge is valuable, which is why we will present the window structure for you below.

Elements of a window

Before discussing the structure of the windows, let us divide a conventional window into its components.

  • window frame
  • Window sash with a frame for different numbers of glass surfaces
  • Window glass (in modern insulating windows a laminated glass)
  • Mechanics for opening and closing the window in the casement
  • Insulation and Versteigungsmaterial

window materials

In this case, windows can be made of different materials.

  • Wood
  • Metal (mostly light metal like aluminum)
  • plastic
  • Combination of the mentioned materials

Components in the frame (wing)

For wooden windows, window frames and sashes are usually glued together from individual parts. Depending on the quality standards of the window, plastic windows contain a more or less stable metal frame, various struts and an insulation that is made of PU foam. In addition, the locking mechanism is still place in the frame parts.

The construction of modern window systems

It is interesting for do-it-yourselfers, window buyers and homeowners but the structure between sash and glass surfaces. Previously, a single glazing, so a disc was inserted into the wing and sealed with putty. So glass pane and window sashes formed a composite. Especially with old buildings, these windows are still partially to be found today. But with the multiple glazing, the design has changed drastically. So window sash frames and glazing no longer form a real composite unit.

The insulating glass composite is inserted into the wing

Rather, the glass layers are combined together via a composite frame to form a unit. The thermal insulation can make this composite glazing theoretically without the sash. Depending on the thermal insulation system, a distinction must be made between the following insulating windows:

  • double glazing
  • triple glazing

The way to today's window construction

In the 1970s and 80s, the double-glazing came on. At that time these insulating windows could also be opened and then cleaned inside. Later, the two discs could not be opened. Rather, absolutely dry air was injected. In addition, it also began to steam the glass inside with metals such as silver, to obtain also better G and U values.

From double to triple glazing

In the 1990s, the double-glazing was then standard construction standard for new buildings. The dry air injection was also increasingly replaced by other techniques:

  • Vacuum between the glass panes
  • Noble gas between the glass panes (argon or krypton)

Noble gases and vacuum

Since the turn of the millennium at the latest, triple-glazed glazing has become more and more popular. The properties of the different gases are nearly identical, differing from the price but also in small and important details. Krypton does not lose its positively used properties even with a small distance between the individual discs. The cheaper argon and also the vacuum already.

The wider you can run a window, the better (cheaper)

So if you have enough room to install a wide triple insulating window, you can at least forego the expensive noble gas Krypton if the disc spacings can be selected to be sufficiently large.

The laminated pane system...

The panes (for double or triple glazing) are then connected to a surrounding frame - the composite frame. Not only does it keep the windows at the correct distance, it also hermetically seals the interiors so that neither gas escapes nor air can penetrate.

... can be used almost arbitrarily

This composite system then forms the actual insulating element, which can only be used in any window sash frame - or, in the case of non-opening windows also directly into the frame. Therefore, modern window systems are today also designed as a modular system.

Benefits for you

For you as a consumer, this has the advantage that you can also exchange parts at any time with a corresponding damage (on the glass as well as on the wing). Provided, of course, you have acquired a system that is well established in the marketplace.

Tips & Tricks

Since you can renew individual elements of your window at any time, you should only resort to the products of well-known window manufacturers. For all other products, neither the quality can be guaranteed in the long term nor the corresponding spare parts supply. Triple glazing offers a thermal insulation increase of around 20 to 25 percent compared to double glazing. Please note, however, that, as already mentioned, the distance between the individual panes is decisive for the insulating effect, as well as the gas or vacuum then used. The sound insulation can also be adjusted via the distance between the windows. The house journal offers numerous articles around windows. For example, you can find items to renovate the window, remove windows or dispose of them to the window.

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