Tile Adhesive: Types and fundamentals when laying

Tile Adhesive: Types and fundamentals when laying: adhesive

More than 60 percent of the tiles and slabs are laid on the floor and have to meet special requirements. Especially for these requirements a special adhesive was developed - easy to process, highly durable, frost-proof and environmentally friendly.

Strong temperature fluctuations in the outdoor area, high weight loads on large floor tiles and underfloor heating in the living room require special adhesive properties.

When laying floor tiles different rules apply than with wall tiles. The glue is mostly plastic-coated, medium-flexible and depending on the amount of water added by stable to flowable adjustable.

The variable adjustability gives the special adhesive best properties: self large-sized floor tiles can be fully saturated embarrassed.

this means optimum frost protection, ideal heat transfer in underfloor heating and extraordinary mechanical resilience of the tile surface.

For all surfaces

With the proper characteristics and proper preparation, almost any surface can be tiled. It is important that he is stable and does not spring or otherwise change its shape. It should be kept in mind that tiles are hard and give a brittle surface.

If the ground moves, these movements can only be minimized by the Use of flexible tile adhesive and joint mortar balanced become. For stronger movements, joints will break and the tiles will burst. If no movements are to be feared, the ground can also be tiled.

Classification of tile adhesive

Depending on Scope, substrate and required propertiestile adhesives are divided and labeled into three distinct groups.

C - Cementitious tile adhesive

Tile Adhesive: Types and fundamentals when laying: tile

Flexible tile adhesive

The Cement glue or thin-bed mortar is the most commonly used tile adhesive in the home improvement sector. It contains a large amount of cement and is only mixed well with water for processing.

He is suitable for laying on simple surfaces, such as screed, plaster or concrete, This makes it the optimal choice for standard expansion and renovation measures.

In the Designation becomes between C1 and C2 distinguished. This number says something about the adhesive strength. She will be downr different conditions, such as heat, moisture or temperature changes checked.

While C1 adhesive everywhere a minimum adhesion of 0.5 N / mm² must show C2 adhesives 1 N / mm² required.

Flexible thin-bed mortar

The flexible thin-bed adhesive or flexible adhesive, forms a special form of cement adhesive. By adding Plastics will have some flexibility even when cured reached. Therefore, it is used where slight movements are expected.

This can thermal expansion in underfloor heating or weather-related temperature change outdoors his. Even with light working substrates, such as plasterboard or fiber cement boards, flexible adhesive is used. The flexible thin bed mortar is divided into two classes, which with S1 and S2 light and stronger flexibility specify.

D - dispersion adhesive

Dispersion adhesives are ready-made adhesives, which are not first must be mixed and dried by dissolving dissolved plastics to set. They also have a high adhesive force on smooth surfaces and combine these with very good flexibility.

Therefore, they mainly find their application Substrates, such as hard foam and plasterboard, However, a disadvantage is the longer setting time. As a result, moisture-sensitive substrates must be pretreated and protected against softening.

Likewise, dispersion adhesives are only used in the tiling of walls, as the longer setting delays further processing. Because of your Frost sensitivity, can not use dispersion adhesive outdoors be used.

The dispersion glues are after their Shear strength in D1 and D2 distinguished. D2 adhesives also exhibit elevated temperature and humidity a higher shear strength.

R - reactive resin adhesives

Reaction resin adhesives are Two-component adhesive based on epoxy resin or polyurethane, They react and harden by mixing two components.

They form one highly flexible and also resistant to many chemicals adhesivewhich also has good adhesion to very smooth surfaces such as glass or steel. Requirements that are rarely required in the private sector.

But with the right joint, they form one absolutely waterproof, flexible and chemical-resistant surfaceused in laboratories, commercial kitchens or other commercial premises.

Like dispersion adhesives and cement adhesives, reaction resin adhesives are subdivided into different classes. R1 and R2 give medium and higher shear strength on.

Standard designation of tile adhesives

In addition to the markings of the different classification of tile adhesives, there are additional characteristics of the properties. These must be tested and are specified in the standard DIN EN 12004.

Example C1EFC1EF Identification of the adhesive Requirement Special properties C - Cement adhesive 1 - normal F - Fast setting (quick setting) D - Dispersion adhesive 2 - lifted T - Thixotropic (low slip) R - Reaction resin adhesive E - Extended open time (long open)

Standard designation of tile adhesives

In addition to the markings of the different Classification of tile adhesives, there are additional markings the properties. These must be tested and are in the norm DIN EN 12004 established.

Example C1EF

Name of the adhesiveRequirementspecial properties
C - cement glue1 - normalF - Fast setting
D - dispersion adhesive2 - liftedT - thixotropic (low slip)
R - Reaction resin adhesiveE - Extended open time (long open)

Tile adhesive for special applications

Fluidized bed adhesive

Fluid Bed Adhesive is a cement adhesive which is used as Tough paste poured on the surface to be laid becomes. A combing with a notched trowel is not necessary and it creates a full-surface installation, which is particularly advantageous in the outdoor area.

Tile adhesive for natural stone and glass mosaic

Ingredients in the tile adhesive can discolour natural stones and lead to cloudy glass tiles. Therefore, only special tile adhesive should be used for these materials.

Medium-bed mortar

Medium-bed mortars are, like cement mortar, hydraulically hardening and are suitable for very uneven surfaces. Maximum can be with more Additions up to 50 mm height differences compensate.

Thick bed mortar

As the name implies, tiles are laid in a thick bed. Dickbedmörtel finds mainly in the laying of natural stones and natural stone slabs in different strengths use.

The right primer before tile laying

Tile Adhesive: Types and fundamentals when laying: fundamentals

Substrate treatment before tile laying

Moisture - whether indoors or outdoors - is the most common cause of damage to wall and floor coverings as well as the underlying undergrounds.

Currently at Wet rooms is a suitable sealing system necessary to permanently protect sensitive surfaces from moisture.

For strongly absorbent and non-absorbent surfaces, a primer is required before sealing. The deep primer solidifies the substrate, reduces the absorbency and compensates for different levels of absorption.

Tile background seals the pores of a sucking underground. This applies not only to aerated concrete but also to substrates such as perforated bricks, lightweight bricks or screed. Furthermore Tile base is also suitable as a "burn-up protection" before the application of gypsum, lime and cement plasters.

undergroundPreliminary workprimerGlue
Concrete / precast concrete elements (older than 6 months)Clean and remove loose partsTiefengrundCementitious thin-bed mortar, dispersion adhesive
Gypsum, lime, cement plastersOne-layer plaster min. 10 mm thick, moisture content max. 1%, flat surface not smoothedTiefengrundCementitious thin-bed mortar, dispersion adhesive
Synthetic plastersThoroughly cleanwithoutFlexible adhesive, other cementitious thin-bed mortar with added elastomers; dispersion adhesive
Plaster, gypsum fiber boardsCleanTiefengrundCementitious thin-bed mortar, dispersion adhesive
Wood / chipboard (waterproof)Moisture content not exceeding 6%, screw on loose parts, cleanHolzgrundFlexible adhesive, other cementitious thin-bed mortar with added elastane, dispersion adhesive
Aerated / porous concreteClean and remove loose partsbonding emulsionFlex adhesive, other cementitious thin-bed mortar with elastadabe, high quality dispersion adhesive
Old tile flooringsRemove soap, grease and wax residue with intensive cleaners, if necessary, pre-fill the entire wall surface with a little glue - allow to dryConcrete contact - cementitious thin-bed mortar, high quality dispersion adhesive - without primerFlex adhesive, other cementitious thin-bed mortar with elastadabe, high quality dispersion adhesive
Carrying, waterproof paintsRoughly roughen and clean with a wire brush or emery paper. Remove non-waterproof coatingswithoutFlex adhesive, other cementitious thin-bed mortar with elastadabe, high quality dispersion adhesive
Concrete floors / precast concrete partsClean and remove loose partsTiefengrundCementary thin, medium bed mortar
Cement screeds / leveling floorsClean and remove loose partsTiefengrundCementary thin, medium bed mortar
Heating screeds on underfloor heatingDry the surface thoroughly dry - carry out residual moisture measurement (1% CM) - clean and remove loose partsTiefengrundFlex adhesive, medium bed mortar or other cementitious thin-bed mortar with Elastzugabe
Dry subfloorClean and remove loose partsTiefengrundFlex adhesive, other cementitious thin and medium bed mortar with Elastzugabe
Cast asphalt screedClean and remove loose partsbonding emulsionFlex adhesive, other cementitious thin and medium bed mortar with Elastzugabe

In principle, tiles can be laid on almost any substrate in a thin-bed process, regardless of whether it is screeds, concrete, wooden floorboards, chipboard or old tiles. However, the prerequisite is always a level, load-bearing ground, which has no continuous cracks. In addition, it must be free of substances such as grease, dust, efflorescence and other loose components that affect adhesion of the adhesive. Old paints have to be removed, unevenness must be leveled or leveled with self-leveling filler. Even very absorbent surfaces can reduce the adhesion of the adhesive.

Tooth size and consumption of tile adhesive

Depending on the tile size, the size of the notched trowel depends. While at small Mosaic tiles use a very small toothing kI just need it modern large-sized tiles a teeth up to 10 mm.

At a Great toothing is also applied more tile adhesive and consumption can increase significantly. Lots Manufacturers give a guideline value on the packaging on. However, this can differ due to the different position of the trowel.

Edge length of the tilerecommended tooth sizeAverage consumption
up to 50 mm3 mm1.5 kg / m2
50 mm to 100 mm4 mm1.8 kg / m2
101 mm to 200 mm6 mm2.2 kg / m2
201 mm to 250 mm8 mm3.0 kg / m2
251 mm to 500 mm10 mm3.7 kg / m2

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Video Board: Adhesives properties and formulation