How to make your floor plate yourself

The base plate - the foundation for all non-basement houses - can be made in different ways - but in most cases it is cast from concrete. An additional insulation of the concrete slab is advisable to prevent heat loss to the surrounding soil. Here you will learn the steps in which a classic, continuous floor slab is made.

Background information

Every non-basemented house needs a load-bearing foundation that dissipates the resulting forces into the ground through the construction and thus stabilizes the building. In frost-prone soils such foundations must then be additionally secured by the construction of a so-called frost apron against damage from ground frost.

A floor slab can be constructed either as a continuous floor slab, as a strip foundation or as a point foundation. Point and strip foundations are more complex to produce and usually more expensive. Every foundation slab should now also be insulated with insulation boards that are at least 80 millimeters thick.

How to make your floor plate yourself: make

Possible alternatives to the classic concrete floor slab

As alternative foundations to the classic base plate made of cast concrete, solid wood prefabricated elements are also available today, which can be used in the same way for storey ceilings. They have a very good natural thermal insulation, which is about 20 times better than concrete. Also thermocouples for the floor slab with integrated insulation and underfloor heating are an alternative, they are about half the cost of conventional continuous concrete foundation slabs.

Step-by-step instructions for a continuous foundation plate with frost apron

  • Ready-mixed concrete (will be delivered)
  • Gravel for cleanliness layer
  • enfierraduras
  • reinforcement profiles
  • Shuttering boards, alternatively boards
  • Bauplane
  • ground iron
  • Ducts
  • Mini excavators
  • Aluminum profile or riser
  • spirit level
  • Vibratory plate for compacting
  • Elektrorüttler

1. Preparation of the underground

Before making the floor slab, the substrate must first be prepared and the topsoil removed first. In the pit, a clean layer is first applied.

The cleanliness layer consists of a gravel bed, which is compacted with the vibrating plate. All necessary connections are now laid on the cleanliness layer via teaching tubes.

2. Apply the frost apron

Around the bottom plate, a mini- digger is used to excavate a trench about 40 cm wide and about 80 cm deep. The grounding strip for power and water supply earthing is laid in the trench. This trench is then filled with concrete, depending on the soil condition and reinforcement cages must be in, which are then connected to the reinforcing bars of the bottom plate.

3. Formwork and laying of the reinforcement for the floor slab

The circumferential formwork made of formwork boards is now attached and fixed, at the corner joints it is nailed. If rigid foam formwork elements are used for a permanent formwork, which then remains later in the structure, these elements must be secured with pegs and glued at the corners.

After aligning and fixing the shuttering boards or formwork elements with the spirit level, the reinforcement mats must still be laid and connected with each other and with the reinforcement baskets of the frost apron. The reinforcement grids must be surrounded on all sides by three centimeters of concrete, with spacers made of plastic.

4. Pour the bottom plate and dry

After the formwork has been installed, the frost apron and the floor slab are filled with the supplied ready-mixed concrete in the required thickness - usually around 20 cm -, compacted with the electric vibrator and smoothed off with the aluminum bat.

After casting, the base plate must dry for about 28 days, protected by a blueprint for either frost or too fast drying (cracking) with an attached blueprint. Irrigation of the concrete is required only on very hot days.

Tips & Tricks

It is also possible to produce the floor slab as a builder by yourself - but only in compliance with a plan of foundation and reinforcement plan previously applied by the structural engineer. Any insulation of the floor slab is made by XPS panels directly on the cleanliness layer, which are covered with an overlapping foil.

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