This is how the water supply in wells works


Two physical principles are used to pump water in a well. For manually operated pumps and some electrically driven models, suction through vacuum formation provides water flow. In the other principle, the pump "pushes" the water upwards, causing the water to spin.

Water extraction by scooping

In shaft wells and draw wells, the water is pumped by means of scooping. A typical example is the classic fairytale fountain into which a bucket is lowered. With it, accumulated water in the fountain bottom is skimmed off. In the draw well, the mechanical "scooping force" is exercised by pulling constructions.

The pumping water production is dependent on the accumulation of water in the well and therefore limited in quantity to the strength and speed of the wake. The construction of a draw well or shaft well does not allow active water extraction out of the water bearing layer.

Active pumping by suction

Among the well types, hand-operated pumps are used in impact and drip wells and shallow wells. They promote the water by creating a vacuum above the water level in the well pipe. The simplest example is the rotary or lever pump, in which by moving a piston, the water is sucked.

The pump piston is sealed by a leather sleeve, which seals the piston section in the well pipe. Moving up and down creates a repeated vacuum that gives the rising water the space to get out. However, the suction effect is limited to well depths of up to eight meters.

submersible pumps

In each groundwater well, a so-called submersible pump can be used, which is permanently under the water surface. The devices known as domestic waterworks "push" the water upwards, with some models having their own intermediate water storage tanks to prevent pumping pauses.

The submersible pumps are placed in the well or the well pipe or hung. They are equipped with a pressure switch that automatically starts the engine when the water pressure in the well pipe drops. Avoid leaks and too high a pump position, which causes the well to draw air. Normal submersible pumps can bridge delivery heights of up to ten meters.

Deep Well Pump

The biggest contribution to the well extraction of wells is provided by deep well pumps. When constructing a well, the elongated pump housings are placed in the well pipe. They are slightly smaller in diameter than the surrounding pipe, so that passing water can cool the engine.

The deep well pumps use impellers to create centrifugal movements in their closed pistons, pushing the water upwards. The physical principle is similar to the effect of quickly stirring water in a vessel. The water rises at the edges and decreases in the center.

Tips & Tricks

While you do not have to protect deep well pumps and submersible pumps from frost due to their position, non-drained suction and vacuum pumps can be damaged in frosty conditions.


Video Board: Well Water Pressure, Pumps & Tanks - How It Works